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  • Author or Editor: Jose L. Peiro x
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Saud N. Al-Shanafey, Cesar G. Fontecha, Marius Aguirre Canyadell, Francisco C. Soldado, Alejandro A. Rojo, Xavier J. Conesa, Nuria T. Toran, Vicenç M. Ibanez and Jose L. Peiro

Object

The authors undertook this study to assess the effect of preterm delivery with respect to neural protection in a congenital myelomeningocele (MMC) mouse model.

Methods

After confirmation of pregnancy in 15 female mice, a congenital MMC model was produced by administration of retinoic acid on the 7th day of gestation. The pregnant mice underwent cesarean sections on Days 15 (n = 5, Group E15), 17 (n = 5, Group E17), and 19 (n = 5, Group E19). Histological analyses were conducted on the lumbar defect and on the craniocervical junction in all fetuses with MMC.

Results

Fetuses in Group E19 showed the most significant injury to neural tissue of the spinal cord at the MMC area followed by those in Group E17, with Group E15 being the least affected. All groups exhibited a degree of Chiari malformation; Group E19 was the most affected, followed by Group E17, and Group E15 was the least affected.

Conclusions

Development of both Chiari malformation and exposed spinal cord injury are progressive during gestation. Preterm delivery in this mouse model of congenital MMC may minimize the degree of injury to the spinal cord neural tissue and the degree of Chiari malformation.

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Marc Oria, Soner Duru, Federico Scorletti, Fernando Vuletin, Jose L. Encinas, Laura Correa-Martín, Kenan Bakri, Helen N. Jones, Francisco M. Sanchez-Margallo and Jose L. Peiro

OBJECTIVE

The authors hypothesized that new agents such as BioGlue would be as efficacious as kaolin in the induction of hydrocephalus in fetal sheep.

METHODS

This study was performed in 34 fetal lambs randomly divided into 2 studies. In the first study, fetuses received kaolin, BioGlue (2.0 mL), or Onyx injected into the cisterna magna, or no injection (control group) between E85 and E90. In the second study, fetuses received 2.0-mL or 2.5-mL injections of BioGlue into the cisterna magna between E85 and E90. Fetuses were monitored using ultrasound to assess lateral ventricle size and progression of hydrocephalus. The fetuses were delivered (E120–E125) and euthanized for histological analysis. Selected brain sections were stained for ionized calcium binding adaptor 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to assess the presence and activation of microglia and astroglia, respectively. Statistical comparisons were performed with Student’s t-test for 2 determinations and ANOVA 1-way and 2-way repeated measures for multiple determinations.

RESULTS

At 30 days after injection, the lateral ventricles were larger in all 3 groups that had undergone injection than in controls (mean diameter in controls 3.76 ± 0.05 mm, n = 5). However, dilatation was greater in the fetuses injected with 2 mL of BioGlue (11.34 ± 4.76 mm, n = 11) than in those injected with kaolin (6.4 ± 0.98 mm, n = 7) or Onyx (5.7 ± 0.31 mm, n = 6) (ANOVA, *p ≤ 0.0001). Fetuses injected with 2.0 mL or 2.5 mL of BioGlue showed the same ventricle dilatation but it appeared earlier (at 10 days postinjection) in those injected with 2.5 mL. The critical threshold of ventricle dilatation was 0.1 for all the groups, and only the BioGlue 2.0 mL and BioGlue 2.5 mL groups exceeded this critical value (at 30 days and 18 days after injection, respectively) (ANOVA, *p ≤ 0.0001). Moderate to severe hydrocephalus with corpus callosum disruption was observed in all experimental groups. All experimental groups showed ventriculomegaly with significant microgliosis and astrogliosis in the subventricular zone around the lateral ventricles. Only kaolin resulted in significant microgliosis in the fourth ventricle area (ANOVA, *p ≤ 0.005).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of these studies demonstrate that BioGlue is more effective than Onyx or kaolin for inducing hydrocephalus in the fetal lamb and results in a volume-related response by obstructive space-occupancy without local neuroinflammatory reaction. This novel use of BioGlue generates a model with potential for new insights into hydrocephalus pathology and the development of therapeutics in obstructive hydrocephalus. In addition, this model allows for the study of acute and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus by using different BioGlue volumes for intracisternal injection.

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Marc Oria, Soner Duru, Federico Scorletti, Fernando Vuletin, Jose L. Encinas, Laura Correa-Martín, Kenan Bakri, Helen N. Jones, Francisco M. Sanchez-Margallo and Jose L. Peiro

OBJECTIVE

The authors hypothesized that new agents such as BioGlue would be as efficacious as kaolin in the induction of hydrocephalus in fetal sheep.

METHODS

This study was performed in 34 fetal lambs randomly divided into 2 studies. In the first study, fetuses received kaolin, BioGlue (2.0 mL), or Onyx injected into the cisterna magna, or no injection (control group) between E85 and E90. In the second study, fetuses received 2.0-mL or 2.5-mL injections of BioGlue into the cisterna magna between E85 and E90. Fetuses were monitored using ultrasound to assess lateral ventricle size and progression of hydrocephalus. The fetuses were delivered (E120–E125) and euthanized for histological analysis. Selected brain sections were stained for ionized calcium binding adaptor 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to assess the presence and activation of microglia and astroglia, respectively. Statistical comparisons were performed with Student’s t-test for 2 determinations and ANOVA 1-way and 2-way repeated measures for multiple determinations.

RESULTS

At 30 days after injection, the lateral ventricles were larger in all 3 groups that had undergone injection than in controls (mean diameter in controls 3.76 ± 0.05 mm, n = 5). However, dilatation was greater in the fetuses injected with 2 mL of BioGlue (11.34 ± 4.76 mm, n = 11) than in those injected with kaolin (6.4 ± 0.98 mm, n = 7) or Onyx (5.7 ± 0.31 mm, n = 6) (ANOVA, *p ≤ 0.0001). Fetuses injected with 2.0 mL or 2.5 mL of BioGlue showed the same ventricle dilatation but it appeared earlier (at 10 days postinjection) in those injected with 2.5 mL. The critical threshold of ventricle dilatation was 0.1 for all the groups, and only the BioGlue 2.0 mL and BioGlue 2.5 mL groups exceeded this critical value (at 30 days and 18 days after injection, respectively) (ANOVA, *p ≤ 0.0001). Moderate to severe hydrocephalus with corpus callosum disruption was observed in all experimental groups. All experimental groups showed ventriculomegaly with significant microgliosis and astrogliosis in the subventricular zone around the lateral ventricles. Only kaolin resulted in significant microgliosis in the fourth ventricle area (ANOVA, *p ≤ 0.005).

CONCLUSIONS

The results of these studies demonstrate that BioGlue is more effective than Onyx or kaolin for inducing hydrocephalus in the fetal lamb and results in a volume-related response by obstructive space-occupancy without local neuroinflammatory reaction. This novel use of BioGlue generates a model with potential for new insights into hydrocephalus pathology and the development of therapeutics in obstructive hydrocephalus. In addition, this model allows for the study of acute and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus by using different BioGlue volumes for intracisternal injection.