John Futchko, Jordan Starr, Darryl Lau, Matthew R. Leach, Christopher Roark, Aditya S. Pandey, and B. Gregory Thompson
Smoking is a known risk factor for aneurysm development and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as subsequent vasospasm in both untreated individuals and patients who have undergone surgical clipping of cerebrovascular aneurysms. However, there is a lack of data in the current scientific literature about the long-term effects that smoking has on the integrity of endovascular repairs of cerebral aneurysms. This study was designed to determine if any smoking history increased the risk of poorer outcomes and/or aneurysm recurrence in patients who have had endovascular repair of cerebral aneurysms.
The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients admitted to the University of Michigan Health System from January 1999 to December 2011 with coiled aneurysms and angiography, CT angiography, or MR angiography follow-up. Patients were identified and organized based on many criteria including age, sex, smoking history, aneurysm recurrence, aneurysm location, and Hunt and Hess grade. Analysis was targeted to the patient population with a history of smoking. Bivariate chi-square tests were used to analyze the association between a positive smoking history and documented aneurysm recurrence and were adjusted for potential confounders by fitting multivariate logistic regression models of recurrence.
A total of 247 patients who had undergone endovascular treatment of 296 documented cerebral aneurysms were included in this study. The recurrence rate among all patients treated with endovascular repair was 24.3%, and the average time to the most recent follow-up imaging studies was 1.62 years. Smokers accounted for 232 aneurysms and were followed up for an average of 1.57 years, with a recurrence rate of 26.3%. Never smokers accounted for the remaining 64 aneurysms and were followed up for an average of 1.82 years, with a recurrence rate of 17.2%. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after controlling for potential confounders, a history of smoking—whether current or former—was associated with a significantly increased risk of aneurysm recurrence. The odds ratios for aneurysm recurrence for current and former smokers were 2.739 (95% CI 1.127–7.095, p = 0.0308) and 2.698 (95% CI 1.078–7.212, p = 0.0395), respectively, compared with never smokers.
A positive smoking history is associated with a significantly increased risk of aneurysm recurrence in patients who have undergone endovascular repair of a cerebral aneurysm, compared with the risk in patients who have never smoked.
Jennifer Strahle, Karin M. Muraszko, Hugh J. L. Garton, Brandon W. Smith, Jordan Starr, Joseph R. Kapurch II,, and Cormac O. Maher
Syrinx size and location within the spinal cord may differ based on etiology or associated conditions of the brain and spine. These differences have not been clearly defined.
All patients with a syrinx were identified from 14,118 patients undergoing brain or cervical spine imaging at a single institution over an 11-year interval. Syrinx width, length, and location in the spinal cord were recorded. Patients were grouped according to associated brain and spine conditions including Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I), secondary CM (2°CM), Chiari malformation Type 0 (CM-0), tethered cord, other closed dysraphism, and spinal tumors. Syringes not associated with any known brain or spinal cord condition were considered idiopathic. Syrinx characteristics were compared between groups.
A total of 271 patients with a syrinx were identified. The most common associated condition was CM-I (occurring in 117 patients [43.2%]), followed by spinal dysraphism (20 [7.4%]), tumor (15 [5.5%]), and tethered cord (13 [4.8%]). Eighty-three patients (30.6%) did not have any associated condition of the brain or spinal cord and their syringes were considered idiopathic. Syringes in patients with CM-I were wide (7.8 ± 3.9 mm) compared with idiopathic syringes (3.9 ± 1.0, p < 0.0001) and those associated with tethered cord (4.2 ± 0.9, p < 0.01). When considering CM-I–associated and idiopathic syringes, the authors found that CM-I–associated syringes were more likely to have their cranial extent in the cervical spine (88%), compared with idiopathic syringes (43%; p < 0.0001). The combination of syrinx width greater than 5 mm and cranial extent in the cervical spine had 99% specificity (95% CI 0.92–0.99) for CM-I–associated syrinx.
Syrinx morphology differs according to syrinx etiology. The combination of width greater than 5 mm and cranial extent in the cervical spine is highly specific for CM-I–associated syringes. This may have relevance when determining the clinical significance of syringes in patients with low cerebellar tonsil position.
Amy K. Bruzek, Jordan Starr, Hugh J. L. Garton, Karin M. Muraszko, Cormac O. Maher, and Jennifer M. Strahle
The nature of the relationship between spinal cord syrinx and tethered cord is not well known. It is unclear if surgical cord untethering results in resolution or improvement of an associated syrinx. The objective of this study was to report the response of spinal cord syrinx to surgical cord untethering.
The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients with a syrinx and tethered cord who presented to a single institution over an 11-year interval. Patients with open neural tube defects were excluded. Thirty-one patients were identified, 25 of whom had both clinical and imaging follow-up after surgery. Patients were grouped according to etiology of the tethered cord. Clinical outcomes and syrinx characteristics were recorded.
Of the 25 patients with tethered cord, 68% (n = 17) were male. The average age at presentation was 2.5 years (0–10.1 years) and age at surgery was 3.7 years (range 1 day to 17 years). Etiologies of tethered cord were lipomyelomeningocele (n = 8), thickened/fatty filum (n = 7), intradural lipoma (n = 5), myelocystocele (n = 2), meningocele (n = 2), and diastematomyelia (n = 1). Twenty-three of the patients underwent primary untethering, whereas 2 patients had received untethering previously at another institution. The average syrinx length and width prior to surgery were 4.81 vertebral levels (SD 4.35) and 5.19 mm (SD 2.55 mm), respectively. Conus level ranged from L1 to S3. Patients were followed for an average of 8.4 years (1.35–15.85 years). Overall there was no significant change in syrinx length or width postoperatively; the average syrinx length increased by 0.86 vertebral levels (SD 4.36) and width decreased by 0.72 mm (SD 2.94 mm). Seven of 25 patients had improvement in at least one presenting symptom, including scoliosis, weakness, bowel/bladder dysfunction, and pain. Eight patients had stable presenting symptoms. Six patients were asymptomatic and 5 patients had new or worsening symptoms, which included scoliosis, pain, or sensory changes.
Although some syrinxes improved after surgery for tethered cord, radiological improvement was not consistent and did not appear to be associated with change in clinical symptoms. The decision to surgically untether a cord should be focused on the clinical symptoms and not the presence of a syrinx alone. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding.