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Nicolas de Tribolet

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Joseph M. Eskridge, Joon K. Song and The Participants

To assess the safety and efficacy of aneurysm embolization performed using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs), the authors reviewed the results of a cohort of 150 patients with either ruptured (83 patients) or unruptured (67 patients) basilar tip aneurysms treated with these detachable platinum coil devices in the early part of the United States multicenter GDC clinical trial that led to Food and Drug Administration approval for the device.

The most common presentation in this cohort of patients was headache (53%). All patients were entered into the trial after neurosurgical assessment excluded them as candidates for surgical clipping of their aneurysms. Greater than 90% coil packing was achieved in 75% of the patients. For those patients in whom follow-up information was available, the mean angiographic and clinical evaluation follow-up time for 61 patients with ruptured aneurysms was 13.7 months (range 0-43 months) and that for the 49 patients with unruptured aneurysms was 9.8 (range 0-40 months). Conservative mortality rates included up to 23% for the ruptured aneurysm group and up to 12% for the unruptured aneurysm group; the rebleeding rate for treated ruptured aneurysms was up to 3.3% and the bleeding rate for unruptured aneurysms up to 4.1%. Permanent deficits due to stroke in patients with ruptured or unruptured aneurysms occurred in up to 5% and 9%, respectively. Vasospasm occurred in 8% of the patients; it was associated with two deaths. Periprocedural mortality was 2.7% (four patients with ruptured aneurysms).

Detachable platinum coil embolization is a promising treatment for ruptured basilar tip aneurysms that are not surgically clippable; in selected patients it offers lower incidences of morbidity and mortality compared with conservative medical management. The role of this procedure in unruptured basilar tip aneurysms is unclear with less supportive results. More long-term follow-up evaluation is necessary and results are expected to improve.

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Joseph M. Eskridge, Joon K. Song and and The Participants

Object. To assess the safety and efficacy of aneurysm embolization performed using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs), the authors reviewed the results of a cohort of 150 patients with either ruptured (83 patients) or unruptured (67 patients) basilar tip aneurysms treated with these detachable platinum coil devices in the early part of the United States multicenter GDC clinical trial that led to Food and Drug Administration approval for the device.

Methods. The most common presentation in this cohort of patients was headache (53%). All patients were entered into the trial after neurosurgical assessment excluded them as candidates for surgical clipping of their aneurysms. Greater than 90% coil packing was achieved in 75% of the patients. For those patients in whom follow-up information was available, the mean angiographic and clinical evaluation follow-up time for 61 patients with ruptured aneurysms was 13.7 months (range 0–43 months) and that for the 49 patients with unruptured aneurysms was 9.8 (range 0–40 months). Conservative mortality rates included up to 23% for the ruptured aneurysm group and up to 12% for the unruptured aneurysm group; the rebleeding rate for treated ruptured aneurysms was up to 3.3% and the bleeding rate for unruptured aneurysms up to 4.1%. Permanent deficits due to stroke in patients with ruptured or unruptured aneurysms occurred in up to 5% and 9%, respectively. Vasospasm occurred in 8% of the patients; it was associated with two deaths. Periprocedural mortality was 2.7% (four patients with ruptured aneurysms).

Conclusions. Detachable platinum coil embolization is a promising treatment for ruptured basilar tip aneurysms that are not surgically clippable; in selected patients it offers lower incidences of morbidity and mortality compared with conservative medical management. The role of this procedure in unruptured basilar tip aneurysms is unclear with less supportive results. More long-term follow-up evaluation is necessary and results are expected to improve.

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Joon K. Song, Joseph M. Eskridge, Cyrus Niakan and H. Richard Winn

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Yasunari Niimi, Alejandro Berenstein, Patricia M. Fernandez, Jonathan L. Brisman and Joon K. Song

Object

The authors characterize the clinical presentation and imaging features of paraspinal nonvertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) along the segmental nerve and describe their endovascular treatment.

Methods

The authors undertook a retrospective review of medical records, imaging, and treatment of patients with endovascular problems spanning the period from 1985 to 2003.

Five pediatric patients (2–3 years of age) received diagnoses of nonvertebral paraspinal AVFs along the segmental nerve. All patients presented with an incidentally discovered continuous murmur over the paraspinal or parasternal regions. All patients were neurologically intact; two patients had cardiomegaly. The AVF was found in the midthoracic level in four patients and at L-3 in one patient. All AVFs were high-flow single-hole fistulas at the neural foramen with venous drainage into paraspinal and epidural veins but without intradural reflux. All fistulas were endovascularly occluded in the same session as diagnostic angiography took place. The fistula was completely occluded, with detachable coils in one case and with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in four cases. Before NBCA injection, the flow through the fistula was decreased either by placing coils distal to the fistula or by inflating a balloon proximally. No signs of recanalization appeared on short-term follow-up magnetic resonance imaging in all patients. All patients remained neurologically intact at the last available follow-up session (mean 6 years).

Conclusions

Nonvertebral paraspinal AVFs along the segmental nerve are specific disease entities seen in children presenting with bruit and cardiomegaly. Endovascular embolization should be the treatment of choice for this rare disease.

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Yoshikazu Yoshino, Yasunari Niimi, Joon K. Song, Michael Silane and Alejandro Berenstein

Object. The authors investigated whether HydroCoils decreased coil compaction and aneurysm recanalization in a canine model of a large, wide-necked, high-flow bifurcation aneurysm.

Methods. Eleven experimental aneurysms were created. Two aneurysms were untreated (Group 1); three were treated with standard platinum coils (Guglielmi Detachable Coils; Group 2); and six were treated with platinum framing coils and filling HydroCoils (Group 3). Comparative angiographic and histopathological data were analyzed at 2 weeks and again at 3 months.

At 3 months, the Group 1 aneurysms remained patent without spontaneous thrombosis. After coil placement the percentage of aneurysm filling by volume ranged from 59 to 90% (mean 75.4%) for Group 3 (HydroCoil-treated) and 34.3 to 48.9% (mean 39.6%) for Group 2 (GDC-treated) (p < 0.05). At 14 days, two of the three Group 2 aneurysms exhibited coil compaction and aneurysm recanalization at the neck; in both cases the condition worsened at 3 months. At 14 days and 3 months, five of the six Group 3 aneurysms were 100%, and one of six was 90% occluded and remained stable. At 3 months, the neointima of the aneurysm neck was significantly thicker in the Group 3 lesions, which had been treated by HydroCoils (0.329 ± 0.191 mm), than in Group 2 lesions, which had been treated with GDCs (0.026 ± 0.018 mm) (p , 0.001). No thrombus formation occurred in Group 2; however, in two of the six aneurysms in Group 3, thrombus formed at the coil—neck interface.

Conclusions. The experimental canine bifurcation aneurysm model overcomes the limitations of side-wall aneurysm models. In this model, HydroCoils resulted in significantly denser coil packing, less follow-up coil compaction, and thicker neointimal tissue at the neck of the lesion. HydroCoils also appeared more thrombogenic at the aneurysm neck—parent artery interface.

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Yuichi Murayama, Fernando Viñuela, Satoshi Tateshima, Joon K. Song, Nestor R. Gonzalez and Michael P. Wallace

Object. A new embolic agent, bioabsorbable polymeric material (BPM), was incorporated into Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) to improve long-term anatomical results in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The authors investigated whether BPM-mounted GDCs (BPM/GDCs) accelerated the histopathological transformation of unorganized blood clot into fibrous connective tissue in experimental aneurysms created in swine.

Methods. Twenty-four experimental aneurysms were created in 12 swine. In each animal, one aneurysm was embolized using BPM/GDCs and the other aneurysm was embolized using standard GDCs. Comparative angiographic and histopathological data were analyzed at 2 weeks and 3 months postembolization.

At 14 days postembolization, angiograms revealed evidence of neck neointima in six of eight aneurysms treated with BPM/GDCs compared with zero of eight aneurysms treated with standard GDCs (p < 0.05). At 3 months postembolization, angiograms demonstrated that four of four aneurysms treated with BPM/GDC were smaller and had neck neointima compared with zero of four aneurysms treated with standard GDCs (p = 0.05). At 14 days, histological analysis of aneurysm healing favored BPM/GDC treatment (all p < 0.05): the grade of cellular reaction around the coils was 3 ± 0.9 (mean ± standard deviation) for aneurysms treated using BPM/GDCs compared with 1.6 ± 0.7 for aneurysms treated using GDCs alone; the percentage of unorganized thrombus was 16 ± 12% compared with 37 ± 15%, and the neck neointima thickness was 0.65 ±0.26 mm compared with 0.24 ±0.21 mm, respectively. At 3 months postembolization, only neck neointima thickness was significantly different (p < 0.05): 0.73 ± 0.37 mm in aneurysms filled with BPM/GDCs compared with 0.16 ± 0.14 mm in aneurysms filled with standard GDCs.

Conclusions. In experimental aneurysms in swine, BPM/GDCs accelerated aneurysm fibrosis and intensified neck neointima formation without causing parent artery stenosis or thrombosis. The use of BPM/GDCs may improve long-term anatomical outcomes by decreasing aneurysm recanalization due to stronger in situ anchoring of coils by organized fibrous tissue. The retraction of this scar tissue may also decrease the size of aneurysms and clinical manifestations of mass effect observed in large or giant aneurysms.

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Joon K. Song, Yasunari Niimi, Jonathan L. Brisman, Patricia M. Fernandez and Alejandro Berenstein

P Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a neonate is exceedingly uncommon. The authors report the case of a neonate with a large anterior communicating artery aneurysm, accessory left middle cerebral artery aneurysm, and left internal carotid artery (ICA) fusiform aneurysm. The neonate suffered from occlusion of the left ICA and aneurysm rupture. The large aneurysm was treated with detachable coils and the patient made a significant recovery. Of the 15 case reports of cerebral aneurysms in neonates that have been published, none has contained a description of multiple aneurysms or a discussion of endovascular treatment.

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Beverly D. L. Aagaard, Joon K. Song, Joseph M. Eskridge and Marc R. Mayberg

✓ Complex developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) represent variations of normal cerebral venous drainage and consist of dilation of the superficial and/or deep venous system. These rare anomalies can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, supratentorially or infratentorially, focally or they can affect the entire hemisphere. Some DVAs are associated with cervicofacial venous malformations or facial lymphatic malformations. Anomalies of this type are generally clinically silent, and cerebral dysfunction is usually absent. Symptoms, when they occur, are most commonly headache or mild seizure disorders. The angiographic findings are striking, with well-formed but enlarged transcerebral medullary and deep and/or superficial cortical veins. Opacification of these venous structures occurs within the same time frame as a normal angiographic venous phase.

The authors report the case of a 33-year-old man in whom a large inoperable arteriovenous malformation had been previously diagnosed and who presented with seizures. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging and angiography demonstrated abnormally dilated transcerebral, superficial, and deep venous structures involving the entire right hemisphere with no identifiable nidus. Additionally, multiple bilateral benign facial hemangiomas were present in this patient.

It is important to recognize this rare venous appearance as a developmental variant and not mistake it for an arteriovenous malformation or a partially thrombosed vein of Galen malformation. Because these venous anomalies are extreme variants of the normal venous system, hemorrhage rarely, if ever, occurs and the patient can be reassured that no interventional or surgical therapy is necessary or warranted.