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Hojin Park, Somin Oh, Jong Woo Choi, and Young Shin Ra

OBJECTIVE

Posterior vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO) is an effective tool to increase intracranial volume and expand the posterior cranial fossa. During PVDO, the authors extended osteotomy posterior to the foramen magnum to fully expand the posterior cranial fossa. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of complete PVDO in posterior fossa expansion and treatment of Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in patients with craniosynostosis.

METHODS

Patients with craniosynostosis who had undergone complete PVDO between January 2012 and May 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. A coronal osteotomy extending to the foramen magnum was performed and the foramen magnum was decompressed by removing its posterior rim with a 1-mm Kerrison rongeur. Four distractor devices were placed and the vector of distraction was controlled from the posterior to the inferior-posterior direction, depending on the deformity. Changes in the intracranial volume, posterior cranial fossa area, and cerebellar tonsillar descent were measured after complete PVDO by using CT and MRI.

RESULTS

A total of 11 patients with craniosynostosis and concurrent CM-I were included in the study. The mean age was 34.6 ± 24.0 months (continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± SD throughout). One patient had sleep apnea, which was consistent with CM-I, and another patient had a headache, which was nonspecific. The intracranial volume increased from 1179.6 ± 180.2 cm3 to 1440.6 ± 251.5 cm3 (p = 0.003; 24.5% increase compared to the preoperative volume). The posterior skull base area increased from 44.9 ± 19.3 cm2 to 72.7 ± 18.1 cm2 (p = 0.004). Cerebellar tonsillar descent decreased in all 11 patients after complete PVDO (preoperative: 10.8 ± 3.7 mm, postoperative: 2.7 ± 3.0 mm; p = 0.003). Among the 11 patients, 5 showed complete resolution of cerebellar tonsillar herniation.

CONCLUSIONS

Complete PVDO can more efficiently expand the posterior cranial fossa, unlike conventional methods. Moreover, it helps to relieve cerebellar tonsillar herniation. Complete PVDO is a powerful tool to increase the intracranial and posterior fossa volumes in patients with craniosynostosis and concurrent CM-I.

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Joong-Uhn Choi, Kook-Hee Yang, Tae-Gon Kim, Jong Hee Chang, Jin Woo Chang, Byung-In Lee, and Dong-Seok Kim

✓ Although intractable epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) can be controlled by microsurgical resection of the lesion, excision of deep-seated lesions is often associated with morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic disconnection is less invasive and seems to be well suited for this indication. The authors discuss the role of endoscopic-assisted surgery in the management of HH-induced seizures.

Four patients with HH-related intractable gelastic seizure underwent endoscopic disconnection surgery. Postoperatively, all patients exhibited improvement. Two patients became seizure free immediately after endoscopic disconnection surgery, one patient with a widespread seizure focus involving the motor strip continued to experience rare complex partial seizures but gelastic seizures ceased, and one experienced a reduced frequency of seizures but persistence of some generalized seizures. Three patients suffered postoperative disconnection-like syndrome, which continued 3 to 7 days and spontaneously disappeared.

The authors advocate the endoscopic disconnection surgery as a safe and effective treatment for HH-related epilepsy by blocking the spread of epileptic discharges from the lesion.

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Changhoon Baek, Sunhyo Kim, Jung-Woo Jang, Younginha Jung, Gwang Jin Choi, Shinyong Shim, Seunghyeon Yun, Kangmoon Seo, Yoon-Kyu Song, Sung June Kim, and Jong-Mo Seo

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ goal was to study avian motor brain mapping via wireless stimulation to induce certain behaviors. In this paper, the authors propose an electrode design that is suitable for avian brain stimulation as well as a stereotactic implant procedure for the proposed electrode.

METHODS

An appropriate breed for avian brain study was chosen. A fully implantable remote-controlled electrical stimulation system was inserted to minimize discomfort. A suitable electrode design and stereotactic surgery method based on the electrode design were investigated.

RESULTS

Using a wireless stimulation system, flapping and rotation behaviors were induced by stimulating the ventral part of the nucleus intercollicularis and formatio reticularis medialis mesencephali both on the ground and during flight.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors were able to implant the entire brain stimulation system inside the avian body without any surgical complications. Postoperative observations suggested that the bird did not find the implant uncomfortable.