Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jong Oh Kim x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Gregory Neil Bowden, Jong Oh Kim, Andrew Faramand, Kevin Fallon, John Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

OBJECTIVE

The use of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) for the treatment of extensive intracranial metastases has been expanding due to its superior dosimetry and efficacy. However, there remains a dearth of data regarding the dose parameters in actual clinical scenarios. The authors endeavored to calculate the radiation dose to the brain when treating ≥ 15 brain metastases with GKSRS.

METHODS

This retrospective analysis reviewed dosage characteristics for patients requiring single-session GKSRS for the treatment of ≥ 15 brain metastases. Forty-two patients met the inclusion criteria between 2008 and 2017. The median number of tumors at the initial GKSRS procedure was 20 (range 15–39 tumors), accounting for 865 tumors in this study. The median aggregate tumor volume was 3.1 cm3 (range 0.13–13.26 cm3), and the median marginal dose was 16 Gy (range 14–19 Gy).

RESULTS

The median of the mean brain dose was 2.58 Gy (range 0.95–3.67 Gy), and 79% of patients had a dose < 3 Gy. The 12-Gy dose volume was a median of 12.45 cm3, which was equivalent to 0.9% of the brain volume. The median percentages of brain receiving 5 Gy and 3 Gy were 6.7% and 20.4%, respectively. There was no correlation between the number of metastases and the mean dose to the brain (p = 0.8). A greater tumor volume was significantly associated with an increased mean brain dose (p < 0.001). The median of the mean dose to the bilateral hippocampi was 2.3 Gy. Sixteen patients had supplementary GKSRS, resulting in an additional mean dose of 1.4 Gy (range 0.2–3.8 Gy) to the brain.

CONCLUSIONS

GKSRS is a viable means of managing extensive brain metastases. This procedure provides a relatively low dose of radiation to the brain, especially when compared with traditional whole-brain radiation protocols.

Restricted access

Sang Kun LEE, Kwang-ki Kim, Hyunwoo Nam, Jong Bai Oh, Chang Ho Yun and Chun-Kee Chung

Object. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in electroencephalography (EEG) patterns obtained from added or repositioned electrodes after those initially implanted had failed to indicate the true local ictal onset zone. The authors focused on the following matters: rationale for adding or repositioning electrodes, topographic and frequency characteristics of ictal onset before and after adding or repositioning electrodes, the effect of the procedures, and the relationship between changes in intracranial EEG onset patterns and surgical outcomes.

Methods. Of 183 patients with intracranial recordings, 18 experienced repositioning of existing or implanting of additional electrodes 7 or 10 days later. All patients underwent resection and were followed up for more than 1 year. In particular, the relationship between surgical outcome and distribution/frequency of intracranial seizure onset was analyzed. Results of noninvasive presurgical evaluations in patients who had undergone single and double invasive studies were also evaluated.

By adding or repositioning electrodes, a new ictal onset zone was revealed in 13 patients. In another four, the second evaluation led to a change in defining the resection margin. Ictal onset in the partially sampled area, simultaneous or independent onset in two separate areas, and onset in the distal end of the electrode strip or grid were common reasons for failing to localize the ictal onset zone during the initial evaluation. Seven of 11 patients who were ultimately found to have a focal ictal onset zone on the second evaluation became seizure free after the operation. Only one of six patients with a regional ictal onset zone identified on the second evaluation became seizure free. There was no relationship between the frequency of the ictal rhythm and surgical outcome. Note, however, that surgical outcome was more favorable in patients who had undergone a single invasive study than in those who had undergone double invasive studies. The patients who needed a second evaluation had less localizing information and less concordant results on presurgical evaluations. When comparing nonlesional cases, surgical outcomes were not significantly different among patients with a single invasive study and those with double invasive studies. No additional morbidity or death occurred during the second study.

Conclusions. The addition or reposition of intracranial electrodes with a short-term interval should be considered in selected patients. Spatial restriction of the ictal onset rhythm identified on repeated evaluation is the most important predictor of a good surgical outcome.

Full access

Hun Ho Park, Min Chul Oh, Eui Hyun Kim, Chan Yun Kim, Sun Ho Kim, Kyu-Sung Lee and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECT

The authors investigated the value of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in predicting visual outcome after surgery for parachiasmal meningioma.

METHODS

Forty-nine eyes of 25 patients who underwent craniotomy and resection of a parachiasmal meningioma were analyzed retrospectively. Visual parameters including visual field (VF) (recorded as the mean deviation [MD]), visual acuity (VA), and RNFL thickness (via optical coherence tomography) were measured before and 1 week, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Postoperative visual outcome was compared among the patients with a thin or normal RNFL. A separate analysis of data pertaining to 22 eyes of 13 patients with severe VF defects (MD ≤ −10 dB) was performed to compare visual outcome for those with a thin or normal RNFL.

RESULTS

Of the 23 eyes that showed VF improvement, 22 (95.7%) had normal RNFL thickness. The positive predictive value of normal RNFL thickness for VF improvement was 78.6%. The VF of patients with normal RNFL thickness improved in 6 months and continued improving 1 year after surgery (MD −5.9 dB before surgery, −5.5 dB 1 week after surgery, −2.8 dB 6 months after surgery [p < 0.01], and −1.1 dB 1 year after surgery [p < 0.01]). In contrast, those with a thin preoperative RNFL showed deterioration at first and then slower, worse visual recovery after surgery (MD −18.1 dB before surgery, −22.4 dB 1 week after surgery, −21.2 dB 6 months after surgery, and −19.1 dB 1 year after surgery). VA also showed significant progress 6 months after surgery in patients with normal RNFL thickness (0.6 before surgery, 0.7 one week after surgery, 0.9 six months after surgery [p = 0.025], and 0.9 one year after surgery [p = 0.050]) compared to those with a thin RNFL (0.3 before surgery, 0.2 one week after surgery, 0.3 six months after surgery, and 0.4 one year after surgery). Preoperative differences in VF MD and VA were noted between the 2 groups (p < 0.01). Even patients with severe VF defects and normal RNFL thickness improved by 11.1 dB by 1 year after surgery compared with patients with a thin RNFL (−0.01 dB) (p < 0.01). Patients with normal RNFL thickness also did better in VA improvement (from 0.7 to 1.1) than those with a thin RNFL (from 0.2 to 0.3), but these results were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS

RNFL thickness measured by optical coherence tomography has significant value as a prognostic factor of postoperative visual recovery for parachiasmal meningioma. Patients with normal RNFL thickness before surgery are more likely to have visual improvement after surgery than patients with a thin RNFL.

Free access

Ji Woong Oh, Kyoung Su Sung, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Jin Woo Chang, Yong Gou Park, Sun Ho Kim and Jong Hee Chang

OBJECTIVE

This study investigated long-term follow-up data on the combined pituitary function test (CPFT) in patients who had undergone transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) to determine the clinical parameters indicative of hypopituitarism following postoperative Gamma Knife surgery (GKS).

METHODS

Between 2001 and 2015, a total of 971 NFPA patients underwent TSS, and 76 of them (7.8%) underwent postoperative GKS. All 76 patients were evaluated with a CPFT before and after GKS. The hormonal states were analyzed based on the following parameters: relevant factors before GKS (age, sex, extent of resection, pre-GKS hormonal states, time interval between TSS and GKS), GKS-related factors (tumor volume; radiation dose to tumor, pituitary stalk, and normal gland; distance between tumor and stalk), and clinical outcomes (tumor control rate, changes in hormonal states, need for hormone-related medication due to hormonal changes).

RESULTS

Of the 971 NFPA patients, 797 had gross-total resection (GTR) and 174 had subtotal resection (STR). Twenty-five GTR patients (3.1%) and 51 STR patients (29.3%) underwent GKS. The average follow-up period after GKS was 53.5 ± 35.5 months, and the tumor control rate was 96%. Of the 76 patients who underwent GKS, 23 were excluded due to pre-GKS panhypopituitarism (22) or loss to follow-up (1). Hypopituitarism developed in 13 (24.5%) of the remaining 53 patients after GKS. A higher incidence of post-GKS hypopituitarism occurred in the patients with normal pre-GKS hormonal states (41.7%, 10/24) than in the patients with abnormal pre-GKS hormonal states (10.3%, 3/29; p = 0.024). Target tumor volume (4.7 ± 3.9 cm3), distance between tumor and pituitary stalk (2.0 ± 2.2 mm), stalk dose (cutoffs: mean dose 7.56 Gy, maximal dose 12.3 Gy), and normal gland dose (cutoffs: maximal dose 13.9 Gy, minimal dose 5.25 Gy) were factors predictive of post-GKS hypopituitarism (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

This study analyzed the long-term follow-up CPFT data on hormonal changes in NFPA patients who underwent GKS after TSS. The authors propose a cutoff value for the radiation dose to the pituitary stalk and normal gland for the prevention of post-GKS hypopituitarism.

Restricted access

Min Young Kim, Ji Hyeon Park, Na Ree Kang, Hye Ryoun Jang, Jung Eun Lee, Wooseong Huh, Yoon-Goo Kim, Dae Joong Kim, Seung-Chyul Hong, Jong-Soo Kim and Ha Young Oh

Object

Mannitol, an osmotic agent used to decrease intracranial pressure, can cause acute kidney injury (AKI). The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of mannitol on the incidence and severity of AKI and to identify risk factors and outcome for AKI in patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods

The authors retrospectively evaluated 153 adult patients who received mannitol infusion after ICH between January 2005 and December 2009 in the neurosurgical intensive care unit. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for AKI after ICH. Based on the odds ratio, weighted scores were assigned to predictors of AKI.

Results

The overall incidence of AKI among study participants was 10.5% (n = 16). Acute kidney injury occurred more frequently in patients who received mannitol infusion at a rate ≥ 1.34 g/kg/day than it did in patients who received mannitol infusion at a rate < 1.34 g/kg/day. A higher mannitol infusion rate was associated with more severe AKI. Independent risk factors for AKI were mannitol infusion rate ≥ 1.34 g/kg/day, age ≥ 70 years, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 110 mm Hg, and glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. The authors developed a risk model for AKI, wherein patients with a higher risk score showed a graded association with a higher incidence of AKI.

Conclusions

The incidence of AKI following mannitol infusion in patients with ICH was 10.5%. A higher mannitol infusion rate was associated with more frequent and more severe AKI. Additionally, age ≥ 70 years, DBP ≥ 110 mm Hg, and established renal dysfunction before starting mannitol therapy were associated with development of AKI.

Restricted access

Peter C. Gerszten, Edward A. Monaco III, Mubina Quader, Josef Novotny Jr., Jong Oh Kim, John C. Flickinger and M. Saiful Huq

Object

Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image guidance technology has been adopted for use in spine radiosurgery. There is concern regarding the ability to safely and accurately perform spine radiosurgery without the use of implanted fiducials for image guidance in postsurgical cases in which titanium instrumentation and/or methylmethacrylate (MMA) has been implanted. In this study the authors prospectively evaluated the accuracy of the patient setup for spine radiosurgery by using CBCT image guidance in the context of orthopedic hardware at the site of disease.

Methods

The positioning deviations of 31 single-fraction spine radiosurgery treatments in patients with spinal implants were prospectively evaluated using the Elekta Synergy S 6-MV linear accelerator with a beam modulator and CBCT image guidance combined with a robotic couch that allows positioning correction in 3 translational and 3 rotational directions. To measure patient movement, 3 quality-assurance CBCT studies were performed and recorded: before, halfway through, and after radiosurgical treatment. The positioning data and fused images of planning CTs and CBCTs from the treatments were analyzed to determine intrafractional patient movements. From each of 3 CBCTs, 3 translational and 3 rotational coordinates were obtained.

Results

The prescribed dose to the gross tumor volume for the cohort was 12–18 Gy (mean 14 Gy) utilizing 9–14 coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams (mean 10 beams). At the halfway point of the radiosurgery, the translational variations and standard deviations were 0.6 ± 0.6, 0.4 ± 0.4, and 0.5 ± 0.5 mm in the lateral (X), longitudinal (Y), and anteroposterior (Z) directions, respectively. The magnitude of the 3D vector (X,Y,Z) was 1.1 ± 0.7 mm. Similarly, the variations immediately after treatment were 0.5 ± 0.3, 0.4 ± 0.4, and 0.5 ± 0.6 mm along the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. The 3D vector was 1.0 ± 0.6 mm. The mean rotational angles were 0.3 ± 0.4, 0.5 ± 0.6, and 0.3 ± 0.4° along yaw, roll, and pitch, respectively, at the halfway point and 0.3 ± 0.4, 0.6 ± 0.6, and 0.4 ± 0.5° immediately after treatment.

Conclusions

Cone beam CT image guidance used for patient setup for spine radiosurgery was highly accurate despite the presence of spinal instrumentation and/or MMA at the level of the target volume. The presence of such spinal implants does not preclude safe treatment via spine radiosurgery in these patients.