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Jong-myung Jung, Seung-Jae Hyun, Ki-Jeong Kim, and Tae-Ahn Jahng

OBJECTIVE

This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of rod fracture (RF) after multiple-rod constructs (MRCs) for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.

METHODS

A single-center, single-surgeon consecutive series of adult patients who underwent posterior thoracolumbar fusion at 4 or more levels using MRCs after osteotomy with at least 1 year of follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics, radiological parameters, operative data, and clinical outcomes (on the Scoliosis Research Society-22r questionnaire) were analyzed at baseline and follow-up.

RESULTS

Seventy-six patients were enrolled in this study. RF occurred in 9 patients (11.8%), with all cases involving partial rod breakage. Seven patients (9.2%) underwent revision surgery. There were no significant differences in baseline demographic characteristics, radiological parameters, and surgical factors between the RF and non-RF groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that interbody fusion at the L5–S1 and L4–S1 levels could significantly reduce the occurrence of RF after MRCs for ASD (adjusted odds ratios 0.070 and 0.035, respectively). The RF group had significantly worse function score (mean 2.9 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.7) and pain score (mean 2.8 ± 1.0 vs 3.5 ± 0.8) compared with the non-RF group at last visit.

CONCLUSIONS

RF occurred in 11.8% of patients with MRCs after ASD surgery. Most RFs occurred at the lumbosacral junction or adjacent level (77%). Interbody fusion at the lumbosacral junction (L5–S1 or L4–S1 level) could significantly prevent the occurrence of RF after MRCs for ASD.

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Myung Soo Youn, Jong Ki Shin, Tae Sik Goh, Seung Min Son, and Jung Sub Lee

OBJECTIVE

Various minimally invasive techniques have been described for the decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, few reports have described the results of endoscopic posterior decompression (EPD) with laminectomy performed under local anesthesia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of EPD performed under local anesthesia in patients with LSS and to compare the procedural outcomes in patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis.

METHODS

Fifty patients (28 female and 22 male) who underwent EPD under local anesthesia were included in this study. Patients were assessed before surgery and were followed up with regular outpatient visits (at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) outcome questionnaire. Radiological outcomes were assessed by measuring lumbar lordosis, disc-wedging angle, percentage of vertebral slippage, and disc height index on plain standing radiographs.

RESULTS

The VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores were significantly improved at 1 month after surgery compared to the baseline mean values, and the improved scores were maintained over the 2-year follow-up period. Radiological progression was found in 2 patients during the follow-up period. Patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis had no significant differences in their clinical and radiological outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

EPD performed under local anesthesia is effective for LSS treatment. Similar favorable outcomes can be obtained in patients with and without preoperative spondylolisthesis using this approach.

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Tae Seok Jeong, Seong Son, Sang Gu Lee, Yong Ahn, Jong Myung Jung, and Byung Rhae Yoo

OBJECTIVE

The object of this study was to compare, after a long-term follow-up, the incidence and features of adjacent segment disease (ASDis) following lumbar fusion surgery performed via an open technique using conventional interbody fusion plus transpedicular screw fixation or a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using a tubular retractor together with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with a follow-up period > 10 years who had undergone instrumented lumbar fusion at the L4–5 level between January 2004 and December 2010. The patients were divided into an open surgery group and MIS group based on the surgical method performed. Baseline characteristics and radiological findings, including factors related to ASDis, were compared between the two groups. Additionally, the incidence of ASDis and related details, including diagnosis, time to diagnosis, and treatment, were analyzed.

RESULTS

Among 119 patients who had undergone lumbar fusion at the L4–5 level in the study period, 32 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. The remaining 87 patients were included as the final study cohort and were divided into an open group (n = 44) and MIS group (n = 43). The mean follow-up period was 10.50 (range 10.0–14.0) years in the open group and 10.16 (range 10.0–13.0) years in the MIS group. The overall facet joint violation rate was significantly higher in the open group than in the MIS group (54.5% vs 30.2%, p = 0.022). However, in terms of adjacent segment degeneration, there were no significant differences in corrected disc height, segmental angle, range of motion, or degree of listhesis of the adjacent segments between the two groups during follow-up. The overall incidence of ASDis was 33.3%, with incidences of 31.8% in the open group and 34.9% in the MIS group, showing no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.822). Additionally, detailed diagnosis and treatment factors were not different between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

After a minimum 10-year follow-up, the incidence of ASDis did not differ significantly between patients who had undergone open fusion and those who had undergone MIS fusion at the L4–5 level.

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Jin-Myung Jung, Hyung-Jin Shin, Je G. Chi, In Sung Park, Eun Sang Kim, and Jong Woo Han

✓ The authors present the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a malignant schwannoma occurring in the right lateral ventricle of a 40-year-old man. Metastasis to both cerebellopontine angles and to the cerebellum was found 7 months after subtotal removal of the tumor.