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William J. Readdy, William D. Whetstone, Adam R. Ferguson, Jason F. Talbott, Tomoo Inoue, Rajiv Saigal, Jacqueline C. Bresnahan, Michael S. Beattie, Jonathan Z. Pan, Geoffrey T. Manley, and Sanjay S. Dhall

OBJECT

The optimal mean arterial pressure (MAP) for spinal cord perfusion after trauma remains unclear. Although there are published data on MAP goals after spinal cord injury (SCI), the specific blood pressure management for acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) and the implications of these interventions have yet to be elucidated. Additionally, the complications of specific vasopressors have not been fully explored in this injury condition.

METHODS

The present study is a retrospective cohort analysis of 34 patients with ATCCS who received any vasopressor to maintain blood pressure above predetermined MAP goals at a single Level 1 trauma center. The collected variables were American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grades at admission and discharge, administered vasopressor and associated complications, other interventions and complications, and timing of surgery. The relationship between the 2 most common vasopressors—dopamine and phenylephrine—and complications within the cohort as a whole were explored, and again after stratification by age.

RESULTS

The mean age of the ATCCS patients was 62 years. Dopamine was the most commonly used primary vasopressor (91% of patients), followed by phenylephrine (65%). Vasopressors were administered to maintain MAP goals fora mean of 101 hours. Neurological status improved by a median of 1 ASIA grade in all patients, regardless of the choice of vasopressor. Sixty-four percent of surgical patients underwent decompression within 24 hours. There was no observed relationship between the timing of surgical intervention and the complication rate. Cardiogenic complications associated with vasopressor usage were notable in 68% of patients who received dopamine and 46% of patients who received phenylephrine. These differences were not statistically significant (OR with dopamine 2.50 [95% CI 0.82–7.78], p = 0.105). However, in the subgroup of patients > 55 years, dopamine produced statistically significant increases in the complication rates when compared with phenylephrine (83% vs 50% for dopamine and phenylephrine, respectively; OR with dopamine 5.0 [95% CI 0.99–25.34], p = 0.044).

CONCLUSIONS

Vasopressor usage in ATCCS patients is associated with complication rates that are similar to the reported literature for SCI. Dopamine was associated with a higher risk of complications in patients > 55 years. Given the increased incidence of ATCCS in older populations, determination of MAP goals and vasopressor administration should be carefully considered in these patients. While a randomized control trial on this topic may not be practical, a multiinstitutional prospective study for SCI that includes ATCCS patients as a subpopulation would be useful for examining MAP goals in this population.

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Jason F. Talbott, William D. Whetstone, William J. Readdy, Adam R. Ferguson, Jacqueline C. Bresnahan, Rajiv Saigal, Gregory W. J. Hawryluk, Michael S. Beattie, Marc C. Mabray, Jonathan Z. Pan, Geoffrey T. Manley, and Sanjay S. Dhall

OBJECT

Previous studies that have evaluated the prognostic value of abnormal changes in signals on T2-weighted MRI scans of an injured spinal cord have focused on the longitudinal extent of this signal abnormality in the sagittal plane. Although the transverse extent of injury and the degree of spared spinal cord white matter have been shown to be important for predicting outcomes in preclinical animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI), surprisingly little is known about the prognostic value of altered T2 relaxivity in humans in the axial plane.

METHODS

The authors undertook a retrospective chart review of 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria of this study and presented to the authors’ Level I trauma center with an acute blunt traumatic cervical SCI. Within 48 hours of admission, all patients underwent MRI examination, which included axial and sagittal T2 images. Neurological symptoms, evaluated with the grades according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS), at the time of admission and at hospital discharge were correlated with MRI findings. Five distinct patterns of intramedullary spinal cord T2 signal abnormality were defined in the axial plane at the injury epicenter. These patterns were assigned ordinal values ranging from 0 to 4, referred to as the Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) scores, which encompassed the spectrum of SCI severity.

RESULTS

The BASIC score strongly correlated with neurological symptoms at the time of both hospital admission and discharge. It also distinguished patients initially presenting with complete injury who improved by at least one AIS grade by the time of discharge from those whose injury did not improve. The authors’ proposed score was rapid to apply and showed excellent interrater reliability.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors describe a novel 5-point ordinal MRI score for classifying acute SCIs on the basis of axial T2-weighted imaging. The proposed BASIC score stratifies the SCIs according to the extent of transverse T2 signal abnormality during the acute phase of the injury. The new score improves on current MRI-based prognostic descriptions for SCI by reflecting functionally and anatomically significant patterns of intramedullary T2 signal abnormality in the axial plane.

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Rachel E. Tsolinas, John F. Burke, Anthony M. DiGiorgio, Leigh H. Thomas, Xuan Duong-Fernandez, Mark H. Harris, John K. Yue, Ethan A. Winkler, Catherine G. Suen, Lisa U. Pascual, Adam R. Ferguson, J. Russell Huie, Jonathan Z. Pan, Debra D. Hemmerle, Vineeta Singh, Abel Torres-Espin, Cleopa Omondi, Nikos Kyritsis, Jenny Haefeli, Philip R. Weinstein, Carlos A. de Almeida Neto, Yu-Hung Kuo, Derek Taggard, Jason F. Talbott, William D. Whetstone, Geoffrey T. Manley, Jacqueline C. Bresnahan, Michael S. Beattie, and Sanjay S. Dhall

OBJECTIVE

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a dreaded condition that can lead to paralysis and severe disability. With few treatment options available for patients who have suffered from SCI, it is important to develop prospective databases to standardize data collection in order to develop new therapeutic approaches and guidelines. Here, the authors present an overview of their multicenter, prospective, observational patient registry, Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in SCI (TRACK-SCI).

METHODS

Data were collected using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) common data elements (CDEs). Highly granular clinical information, in addition to standardized imaging, biospecimen, and follow-up data, were included in the registry. Surgical approaches were determined by the surgeon treating each patient; however, they were carefully documented and compared within and across study sites. Follow-up visits were scheduled for 6 and 12 months after injury.

RESULTS

One hundred sixty patients were enrolled in the TRACK-SCI study. In this overview, basic clinical, imaging, neurological severity, and follow-up data on these patients are presented. Overall, 78.8% of the patients were determined to be surgical candidates and underwent spinal decompression and/or stabilization. Follow-up rates to date at 6 and 12 months are 45% and 36.3%, respectively. Overall resources required for clinical research coordination are also discussed.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors established the feasibility of SCI CDE implementation in a multicenter, prospective observational study. Through the application of standardized SCI CDEs and expansion of future multicenter collaborations, they hope to advance SCI research and improve treatment.