Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 20 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jonathan Roth x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Vitaly Siomin, Giuseppe Cinalli, Andre Grotenhuis, Aprajay Golash, Shizuo Oi, Karl Kothbauer, Howard Weiner, Jonathan Roth, Liana Beni-Adani, Alain Pierre-Kahn, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Connor Mallucci, Rick Abbott, Jeffrey Wisoff and Shlomi Constantini

Object. In this study the authors evaluate the safety, efficacy, and indications for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in patients with a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection.

Methods. The charts of 101 patients from seven international medical centers were retrospectively reviewed; 46 patients had a history of hemorrhage, 42 had a history of CSF infection, and 13 had a history of both disorders. All patients experienced third ventricular hydrocephalus before endoscopy. The success rate for treatment in these three groups was 60.9, 64.3, and 23.1%, respectively. The follow-up period in successfully treated patients ranged from 0.6 to 10 years. Relatively minor complications were observed in 15 patients (14.9%), and there were no deaths. A higher rate of treatment failure was associated with three factors: classification in the combined infection/hemorrhage group, premature birth in the posthemorrhage group, and younger age in the postinfection group. A higher success rate was associated with a history of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement before ETV in the posthemorrhage group, even among those who had been born prematurely, who were otherwise more prone to treatment failure. The 13 premature infants who had suffered an IVH and who had undergone VP shunt placement before ETV had a 100% success rate. The procedure was also successful in nine of 10 patients with primary aqueductal stenosis.

Conclusions. Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus and a history of either hemorrhage or infection may be good candidates for ETV, with safety and success rates comparable with those in more general series of patients. Patients who have sustained both hemorrhage and infection are poor candidates for ETV, except in selected cases and as a treatment of last resort. In patients who have previously undergone shunt placement posthemorrhage, ETV is highly successful. It is also highly successful in patients with primary aqueductal stenosis, even in those with a history of hemorrhage or CSF infection.

Restricted access

Jonathan Roth, Ami Mayo, Hanoch Elran, Nissim Razon and Yoram Kluger

Object. Metallic particles contained in antihuman bombs increase the number of fatalities. The ballistics of these particles depends on the explosive that is used, the distance from the explosion, the shape of the particle projected, and the biomechanics of the injured tissue. The authors present their experience with penetrating spherical bolt injuries to the brain.

Methods. The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological data obtained in eight patients with penetrating spherical bolt injuries to the cranium: four had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores less than 8 (three died, one from an unrelated injury) and four had a GCS score of 15 (all survived). Two of the latter patients suffered unique anatomical injuries attributed to the distinctive ballistics of spherical bolts: in one patient the bolt penetrated the cavernous sinus causing minimal cranial nerve injury, and in the other patient the bolt lodged in the fourth ventricle causing acute hydrocephalus without other neurological deficits.

Conclusions. Penetrating spherical bolts to the brain may be lethal. Nevertheless, they have unique ballistics that cause highly delineated anatomical damage and minor neurological deficits.

Restricted access

Mark M. Souweidane, Peter F. Morgenstern, Sungkwon Kang, Apostolos John Tsiouris and Jonathan Roth

Object

Fenestration of the floor of the third ventricle is vital to the success of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in treating patients with noncommunicating hydrocephalus. A generous prepontine interval (PPI) is generally accepted as one anatomical feature that may affect the safety and functionality of ETV. Whether a diminished PPI influences the safety or success of ETV, however, has not been adequately assessed.

Methods

A review was conducted on the last 100 ETV procedures performed by the first author (M.M.S.). From archived preoperative MR imaging studies, the PPI was measured between the dorsum sellae and the basilar artery. For any patient with an interval of ≤1 mm, the technical and functional success of the procedure was recorded. Technical success was defined when a surgically created fenestration was accomplished without patient morbidity. Functional success was defined as the patient not needing any additional CSF diversionary procedure within 3 months after ETV.

Results

In the entire cohort, the PPI ranged from 0 to 9.5 mm (mean 3.2 mm). There were 15 procedures performed in patients with a PPI of ≤1 mm. In all 15 procedures, a fenestration of the tuber cinereum was accomplished without vascular injury or patient morbidity. The ETV was successful in 11 patients (73.3%). All 4 failures occurred in children who had surgery during infancy (mean age 11 months).

Conclusions

Patients with an obliterated or reduced PPI can safely undergo ETV. The functional success rate appears equivalent to historical controls. Most failures in this series may be attributed to other patient characteristics, namely young age at the time of ETV.

Restricted access

Jonathan Roth, Jonathan Shtokman, Merav H. Shamir, Moshe Nissan, Leonid Shchetinkov, Leonor L. Trejo and Shimon Rochkind

Object

Traditional treatment of transected peripheral nerves has been by suturing the nerve ends to each other. Because this approach is not widely available and is technically demanding, the authors evaluated an easier method for end-to-end anastomosis using cyanoacrylate-based glue.

Methods

The authors used a rat sciatic nerve model. The sciatic nerve was transected in one hind limb in each of 40 rats. In 20 rats, end-to-end anastomosis was performed with suturing, while in the other 20 it was performed using only cyanoacrylate glue. The outcome variables were incapacitance test results; the functional sciatic index; somatosensory evoked potentials; axon counts and sizes at the proximal, anastomotic, and distal levels; local adhesions; and automutilation injuries. Outcomes were measured in a manner blinded to the anastomotic technique.

Results

Only the somatosensory evoked potentials and degree of local adhesions were significantly better in the Suture Group than in the Glue Group. With respect to the remaining outcomes (automutilation injuries, counts of large and medium axons combined, and counts of small axons), either the results were significantly better in the Glue Group or the between-groups difference was not statistically significant. There were no consistent significant correlations between the various outcome measures.

Conclusions

Using cyanoacrylate-based glue for microanastomosis of cut nerves appears to be as effective as microsuturing the nerve ends. Despite more local adhesions in the glued nerves, most functional outcomes were not influenced by the anastomotic technique. Validation of these findings awaits studies of larger groups of animals.

Restricted access

Donato Pacione, Francine Blei, Orrin Devinsky, Howard L. Weiner and Jonathan Roth

Object

Surgery is increasingly used to treat children with refractory epilepsy. Before surgery, the authors routinely evaluated the coagulation profile to identify coagulation abnormalities not established by personal and family history, physical examination, and routine screening tests.

Methods

Thirty-nine consecutive children undergoing testing prior to epilepsy surgery were prospectively evaluated. The authors evaluated a detailed hematological history and an elaborative hematological panel including complete blood count, hepatic panel, anticoagulant levels, coagulation profile (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, fibrinogen, thrombin time, von Willebrand antigen, ristocetin cofactor, factor VIII, and individual factor assays when indicated) and platelet aggregation studies (in the presence of adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, collagen, and ristocetin). Patient variables included tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), age at epilepsy onset, age at surgery, seizure frequency, number and type of antiepileptic drugs, recent or present ketogenic diet, and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Results

Ten children (25.6%) had either coagulation or platelet function abnormalities. Abnormal coagulation was identified in 5 children, and abnormal platelet function was discovered in 6. A diagnosis of TSC was associated with a platelet function abnormality (p = 0.012), whereas children without TSC had a higher rate of coagulopathy (p = 0.041). None of the other characteristics reached statistical significance. In 2 patients (5.1%) with TSC and platelet aggregation abnormalities, the authors noted normal standard screening laboratory studies and an uneventful detailed personal and family history. One of these 2 patients developed a significant intraoperative bleeding complication.

Conclusions

A preoperative screening with standard laboratory studies and detailed history may not be adequate to fully examine underlying coagulation abnormalities in children with refractory epilepsy. Platelet aggregation studies should be considered in patients with TSC.

Restricted access

Joel S. Katz, Sarah S. Milla, Graham C. Wiggins, Orrin Devinsky, Howard L. Weiner and Jonathan Roth

Object

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) can manifest with 3 principal intracranial pathological entities: cortical tubers, subependymal nodules (SENs), and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). The authors analyzed the location and growth of intraventricular lesions in a large cohort of patients with TSC.

Methods

After institutional review board protocol approval, the authors retrospectively reviewed brain MRI scans of TSC patients for whom at least 1 electronically stored cranial MRI study was available. Collected data included location, size, and growth over time of all intraventricular lesions.

Results

The authors reviewed 560 scans in 103 patients, who harbored 496 intraventricular lesions. Of the 496 lesions, 157 lesions were located along the caudate-thalamic groove (CTG) in 88 patients. Twenty SEGAs were operated on. The remaining 339 lesions were distributed along the lateral ventricle, always in contact with the course of the caudate nucleus, and were presumed to be SENs. Twenty-two patients with more than 4 years of follow-up had 34 lesions along the CTG, of which 23 were stable in size and 11 grew. All other intraventricular lesions were stable. Seven-Tesla MRI showed the intimate association of SENs and the caudate nucleus in 1 patient.

Conclusions

Intraventricular lesions in TSC patients are located throughout the lateral ventricular wall. Their location exclusively follows the course of the caudate nucleus. Only lesions along the CTG showed the potential to grow, and these were then identified as SEGAs. The remaining lesions were SENs. Understanding why these lesions develop in relation to the caudate nucleus may offer insights into therapy.

Restricted access

Jonathan Roth, Robert F. Keating, John S. Myseros, Amanda L. Yaun, Suresh N. Magge and Shlomi Constantini

Object

Rising numbers of MRI studies performed during evaluations for pediatric disorders have contributed to a significant increase in the number of incidentally found brain tumors. Currently, there is very little literature on the nature of and the preferred treatment for these incidental brain tumors. In this paper the authors review their experience diagnosing and treating these lesions in children as well as the current literature on this topic.

Methods

Records from 2 centers were reviewed for incidentally found brain tumors, treatment approaches, and outcomes for both surgical and nonsurgical cohorts.

Results

Forty-seven children (30 males and 17 females) with a mean age of 8.6 years were found to have incidental brain lesions suspected to be neoplasms. Twenty-five underwent surgery and 22 were observed. Two children in the observation group required surgery at a later stage. Tumor pathology in 24 patients was benign. Only 3 patients had high-grade tumors. All nonsurgically treated lesions were presumed to be low-grade tumors and were followed up for 25 ± 20 months.

Conclusions

The discovery of incidental brain tumors on MRI in children poses an increasing challenge. Additional studies are needed to determine the significance as well as the optimal management strategies in this situation.

Restricted access

Jason R. Chalifoux, Nissa Perry, Joel S. Katz, Graham C. Wiggins, Jonathan Roth, Daniel Miles, Orrin Devinsky, Howard L. Weiner and Sarah S. Milla

Object

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) brain pathology is characterized on MRI by cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Seizures, the prominent feature of TSC, are frequently intractable to medical therapy and, in many patients, resection of tubers results in seizure control. However, in approximately 40% of patients, resection of tubers does not control seizures. This fact, as well as evidence from invasive electrophysiological recordings and experimental animal models, suggests that in patients with TSC, there may be extratuberal epileptogenic brain that does not display any apparent abnormality on conventional MRI. The authors hypothesized that high field strength MRI might uncover lesions not seen on conventional MRI in these patients.

Methods

Institutional review board approval was obtained to scan 4 patients with TSC (ages 18–26 years) in a 7-T MR unit. Optimized 7-T sequences, including T1- and T2-weighted, FLAIR, SPACE FLAIR, T2*, and MPRAGE studies, were performed. Imaging studies were compared with identical sequences performed using a conventional 1.5-T MR scanner.

Results

In all 4 patients, there was improved visualization of the findings demonstrated on conventional imaging. Importantly, new lesions were detected in all 4 patients, which were not well visualized with conventional MRI. Newly detected lesions included microtubers, radial glial signal abnormalities, subependymal nodules arising from the caudate nucleus, and caudate nucleus lesions.

Conclusions

High field strength MRI detects previously uncharacterized lesions in patients with TSC and allows better detection and delineation of subtle abnormalities. In addition, the data demonstrate a compelling relationship between intraventricular lesions and the caudate nucleus. These data support previous electrophysiological and animal-model findings that demonstrate neurological pathology beyond the conventionally detected lesions in TSC.

Free access

Jonathan Roth, Marian M. Bercu and Shlomi Constantini

Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are typically located within the vicinity of the third ventricle. They can be attached to the walls of the third ventricle, within the interpeduncular cistern (third ventricle floor), and/or attached to the mammillary bodies and hypothalamus. Depending on their location, resection is performed either through the third ventricle, approaching from above, or via a frontotemporal craniotomy (pterional or frontoorbital), approaching from below. “Above” approaches typically include the transcallosal–anterior interforniceal approach, and recently, purely endoscopic approaches performed transforaminally.

The authors present a combined open and endoscopic approach for resection of HHs located within the third ventricle. They used this approach in 2 young girls with relatively small lateral and third ventricles. Following an interhemispheric, transcallosal approach and exposure of the right foramen of Monro, an endoscope was inserted through the foramen, which enabled safe resection of the HH.

The main advantage of the combined approach is when the lateral and third ventricles are relatively small, making a purely endoscopic approach more challenging and possibly riskier.

Free access

Harold L. Rekate