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Jonathan L. Brisman

✓The best management strategy for symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia is currently not well-defined. Noninvasive Optimal Vessel Analysis (NOVA, VasSol, Inc.) is computer software that, using quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) angiography technology, represents the only commercially available means of noninvasively measuring blood flow within the human vasculature.

The author used quantitative MR angiography to study cerebral blood flow in 2 patients who underwent angioplasty and stenting for medically refractory extracranial cervical vertebral artery (VA) stenosis using the recently Food and Drug Administration–approved WingSpan stent (Boston Scientific, Target). WingSpan stents were successfully placed after balloon angioplasty in both patients without complications. At the 5-month clinical follow-up examination, 1 patient was symptom free and the other had had a possible transient ischemic attack without sequelae. The WingSpan stent may represent an alternative management scheme for symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia from extracranial VA stenosis. Quantitative MR angiography can readily measure blood flow in the vertebrobasilar system, and these values correlated with the angiographic outcomes in the 2 patients treated in the present study.

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Bob S. Carter, Jonathan L. Brisman and Christopher S. Ogilvy

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James S. McKinney, Thomas Steineke, David Nochlin and Jonathan L. Brisman

The authors report the de novo occurrence and treatment of an arteriovenous lesion within an anaplastic oligodendroglioma in a patient with previously unremarkable brain imaging. Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are believed to be congenitally acquired lesions, and their association with brain neoplasms is extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging revealed a mass lesion with large arteriovenous shunts and a vascular nidus mimicking a true AVM. Histological and immunohistochemical testing showed an anaplastic oligodendroglioma mixed with an AVM. The clinical, radiological, and operative data are reviewed, as are the histopathological findings. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of de novo occurrence of an arteriovenous lesion with large shunts and a vascular nidus within an anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

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Yasunari Niimi, Alejandro Berenstein, Patricia M. Fernandez, Jonathan L. Brisman and Joon K. Song

Object

The authors characterize the clinical presentation and imaging features of paraspinal nonvertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) along the segmental nerve and describe their endovascular treatment.

Methods

The authors undertook a retrospective review of medical records, imaging, and treatment of patients with endovascular problems spanning the period from 1985 to 2003.

Five pediatric patients (2–3 years of age) received diagnoses of nonvertebral paraspinal AVFs along the segmental nerve. All patients presented with an incidentally discovered continuous murmur over the paraspinal or parasternal regions. All patients were neurologically intact; two patients had cardiomegaly. The AVF was found in the midthoracic level in four patients and at L-3 in one patient. All AVFs were high-flow single-hole fistulas at the neural foramen with venous drainage into paraspinal and epidural veins but without intradural reflux. All fistulas were endovascularly occluded in the same session as diagnostic angiography took place. The fistula was completely occluded, with detachable coils in one case and with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in four cases. Before NBCA injection, the flow through the fistula was decreased either by placing coils distal to the fistula or by inflating a balloon proximally. No signs of recanalization appeared on short-term follow-up magnetic resonance imaging in all patients. All patients remained neurologically intact at the last available follow-up session (mean 6 years).

Conclusions

Nonvertebral paraspinal AVFs along the segmental nerve are specific disease entities seen in children presenting with bruit and cardiomegaly. Endovascular embolization should be the treatment of choice for this rare disease.

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Joon K. Song, Yasunari Niimi, Jonathan L. Brisman, Patricia M. Fernandez and Alejandro Berenstein

P Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a neonate is exceedingly uncommon. The authors report the case of a neonate with a large anterior communicating artery aneurysm, accessory left middle cerebral artery aneurysm, and left internal carotid artery (ICA) fusiform aneurysm. The neonate suffered from occlusion of the left ICA and aneurysm rupture. The large aneurysm was treated with detachable coils and the patient made a significant recovery. Of the 15 case reports of cerebral aneurysms in neonates that have been published, none has contained a description of multiple aneurysms or a discussion of endovascular treatment.

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Jonathan L. Brisman, Chan Roonprapunt, Joon K. Song, Yasunari Niimi, Avi Setton, Alejandro Berenstein and Eugene S. Flamm

✓ The treatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in patients presenting with vasospasm remains a particular challenge. The authors treated two patients harboring Hunt and Hess Grade 1 subarachnoid hemorrhages from middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms associated with severe local angiographically demonstrated yet asymptomatic vasospasm on presentation. Because both aneurysms had wide necks and were located at the MCA bifurcation, they were believed to be anatomically suitable for microsurgical clip application. Severe M1 vasospasm was believed to be a relative contraindication to open surgery, however.

An intentionally staged endovascular and microsurgical treatment strategy was planned in each patient. Partial coil occlusion of the aneurysmal dome was performed to prevent the lesion from rebleeding and was followed by balloon angioplasty of the spastic vessel. Early treatment of the severe spasm appeared to prevent significant delayed neurological ischemic deficit. Following resolution of the vasospasm, definitive clipping of the aneurysms was performed on Day 13 post embolization. One patient had a good clinical recovery and was discharged without neurological deficit. The other patient's hospital course was complicated by the occurrence of a postoperative posterior temporal infarct requiring partial temporal lobectomy, although she eventually had a good recovery with only a small visual field deficit. Based on data obtained in these two patients, one can infer that ruptured wide-necked MCA aneurysms associated with severe local vasospasm may best be treated using a staged combined treatment plan. Delayed clip application might be performed more safely 4 to 6 weeks postocclusion, or later, than at 2 weeks.

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David J. Langer, Joon K. Song, Yasunari Niimi, Markus Chwajol, Daniel R. Lefton, Jonathan L. Brisman, Walter Molofsky, Mark J. Kupersmith and Alejandro Berenstein

✓ In patients with vein of Galen malformations, high-flow shunting decreases cerebral perfusion. By reducing or eliminating these shunts, transarterial embolization can improve cerebral perfusion and clinical outcomes. Quantifying pre-and postembolization shunt blood flow may help determine the optimal timing and efficacy of embolization and may provide prognostic information. The authors used magnetic resonance imaging noninvasive optimal vessel analysis as a novel modality to measure volumetric blood flow through vein of Galen malformation shunts in a neonate and an infant before and after transarterial embolization.