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David M. Katz, Jonathan D. Trobe, Karin M. Muraszko and Robert C. Dauser

✓ Four patients who developed increased intracranial pressure from ventricular shunt failure suffered a delay in diagnosis because magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show ventriculomegaly and because ophthalmic findings were initially overlooked or misinterpreted. None of the patients had the conventional manifestations of shunt failure: severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and depressed consciousness. Three patients suffered marked, permanent vision loss from chronic papilledema. These cases affirm that increased intracranial pressure may occur in shunt dependency without producing either conventional clinical symptoms or signs on imaging of the brain. Because ophthalmic manifestations may be the major clues to diagnosis, and because irreversible loss of vision is possible if these clues are overlooked, consideration should be given to periodic ophthalmological examination of shunt-dependent patients.

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Cormac O. Maher, Hugh J. L. Garton, Wajd N. Al-Holou, Jonathan D. Trobe, Karin M. Muraszko and Eric M. Jackson


Arachnoid cysts may occasionally be associated with subdural hygromas. The management of these concurrent findings is controversial.


The authors reviewed their experience with arachnoid cysts and identified 8 patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts and an associated subdural hygroma. The medical records and images for these patients were also examined.


In total, 8 patients presented with concurrent subdural hygroma and arachnoid cyst. Of these 8 patients, 6 presented with headaches and 4 had nausea and vomiting. Six patients had a history of trauma. One patient was treated surgically at the time of initial presentation, and 7 patients were managed without surgery. All patients experienced complete resolution of their presenting signs and symptoms.


Subdural hygroma may lead to symptomatic presentation for otherwise asymptomatic arachnoid cysts. The natural course of cyst-associated subdural hygromas, even when symptomatic, is generally benign, and symptom resolution can be expected in most cases. The authors suggest that symptomatic hygroma is not an absolute indication for surgical treatment and that expectant management can result in good outcomes in many cases.