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Jonathan A. Friedman and David G. Piepgras

Object

Vascular bypass is performed in neurosurgery for a variety of pathological entities, including extracranial atherosclerotic disease, extra- and intracranial aneurysms, and tumors involving the carotid artery (CA) at the skull base or cervical regions. Creation of an interposition saphenous vein graft (SVG) is the typical method of choice when the superficial temporal artery is not an option.

Methods

One hundred thirty consecutive patients treated with SVG between July 1988 and December 2002 at the Mayo Clinic were studied. A total of 130 procedures were performed in 130 patients. The indications were intracranial aneurysm in 51 patients (39%), CA occlusive disease in 36 (28%), extracranial CA aneurysm in 17 (13%), tumors involving the cervical CA in 11 (8%), vertebral artery occlusive disease in eight (6%), and other indications in six patients (5%). Among patients treated for intracranial aneurysms, 43 harbored giant aneurysms (> 25 mm in widest diameter) whereas the remaining eight patients harbored aneurysms that were large (15–25 mm in widest diameter). Among patients with CA occlusive disease, high-grade stenosis at the CA bifurcation was present in 29 and CA occlusion was demonstrated in seven.

Conclusions

The use of SVG bypass remains a valuable component of the neurosurgical armamentarium for a variety of pathological entities. Despite a general trend toward decreased use because of improved endovascular technology, surgical facility with this procedure should be maintained.

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Jonathan A. Friedman, Bruce E. Pollock, and Douglas A. Nichols

✓ This 61-year-old man with a right-sided tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) was initially treated with staged stereotactic radiosurgery and transarterial embolization. Results of follow-up cerebral angiography performed 4 years later demonstrated complete obliteration of the dAVF and development of a previously undetected cerebellar arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The newly diagnosed AVM was treated with repeated stereotactic radiosurgery. This represents the first reported case of the development of a cerebral AVM documented in an adult by serial angiography.

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Jonathan A. Friedman, Alejandro A. Rabinstein, and Fredric B. Meyer

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Jonathan A. Friedman, Michael J. Ebersold, and Lynn M. Quast

Object

Persistent posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage frequently complicates skull base fractures. Although many CSF leaks will cease without treatment, patients with CSF leaks that persist greater than 24 hours may be at increased risk for meningitis, and many will require surgical intervention. The authors reviewed their 15-year experience with posttraumatic CSF leaks that persisted longer than 24 hours.

Methods

The authors reviewed the medical records of 51 patients treated between 1984 and 1998 with CSF leaks that persisted for 24 hours or longer after traumatic head injury. In 27 patients (55%) spontaneous resolution of CSF leakage occurred at an average of 5 days posttrauma. In 23 patients (45%) surgery was required to resolve the leakage. Eight patients (16%) with occult CSF leaks presented with recurrent meningitis at an average of 6.5 years post-trauma. Forty-three (84%) patients with CSF leaks sustained a skull fracture, most commonly involving the frontal sinus, whereas parenchymal brain injury or extraaxial hematoma was demonstrated in only 18 patients (35%). Delayed CSF leaks, with an average onset of 13 days posttrauma, were observed in eight patients (16%).

Among patients with clinically evident CSF leakage, the frequency of meningitis was 10% with antibiotic prophylaxis, and 21% without antibiotic prophylaxis. Thus, prophylactic antibiotic administration halved the risk of meningitis. A variety of surgical approaches was used, and no significant neurological morbidity occurred. Three (13%) of 23 surgically treated patients required additional surgery to treat continued CSF leakage.

Conclusions

A significant proportion of patients with CSF leaks that persist greater than 24 hours will require surgical intervention. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy may be effective in this group of patients. Patients with skull base or frontal sinus fractures should be followed to detect the occurrence of delayed leakage. Surgery-related outcome is excellent.

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Jonathan A. Friedman, Robert E. Anderson, and Fredric B. Meyer

Understanding the physiological mechanisms of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of great importance to neurosurgeons engaged in the management of patients with cerebrovascular disease. Over the past 50 years, techniques to measure CBF and mathematical methods to calculate CBF have evolved substantially. For the cerebrovascular surgeon, intra-operative CBF monitoring is an important adjunct in certain intra- and extracranial procedures. The authors review current techniques in use for the intraoperative measurement of CBF.

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Nicholas M. Wetjen, Jonathan A. Friedman, and Fredric B. Meyer

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Frederic P. Collignon, Jonathan A. Friedman, and John L. D. Atkinson

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Jonathan A. Friedman, Fredric B. Meyer, Nicholas M. Wetjen, and Douglas A. Nichols

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