Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for

  • Author or Editor: John Wolf x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Amparo Wolf, Svetlana Kvint, Abraham Chachoua, Anna Pavlick, Melissa Wilson, Bernadine Donahue, John G. Golfinos, Joshua Silverman and Douglas Kondziolka

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of brain metastases is increasing with improved systemic therapies, many of which have a limited impact on intracranial disease. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a first-line management option for brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a threshold tumor size below which local control (LC) rates approach 100%, and to relate these findings to the use of routine surveillance brain imaging.

METHODS

From a prospective registry, 200 patients with 1237 brain metastases were identified who underwent SRS between December 2012 and May 2015. The median imaging follow-up duration was 7.9 months, and the median margin dose was 18 Gy. The maximal diameter and volume of tumors were measured. Histological analysis included 96 patients with non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), 40 with melanoma, 35 with breast cancer, and 29 with other histologies.

RESULTS

Almost 50% of brain metastases were NSCLCs and commonly measured less than 6 mm in maximal diameter or 70 mm3 in volume. Thirty-three of 1237 tumors had local progression at a median of 8.8 months. The 1- and 2-year actuarial LC rates were 97% and 93%, respectively. LC of 100% was achieved for all intracranial metastases less than 100 mm3 in volume or 6 mm in diameter. Patients whose tumors at first SRS were less than 10 mm maximal diameter or a volume of 250 mm3 had improved overall survival.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS can achieve LC rates approaching 100% for subcentimeter metastases. The earlier initial detection and prompt treatment of small intracranial metastases may prevent the development of neurological symptoms and the need for resection, and improve overall survival. To identify tumors when they are small, routine surveillance brain imaging should be considered as part of the standard of care for lung, breast, and melanoma metastases.

■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: prognostic; study design: retrospective cohort; evidence: Class II.

Restricted access

Aizik Wolf, Lion Levi, Stuart Mirvis, John Ragheb, Stephen Huhn, Daniele Rigamonti and Walker L. Robinson

✓ Fifty-two patients with acute traumatic bilateral locked facets were treated at one trauma center during a 3½-year period (July, 1987, to December, 1990). The patients presented with complete motor quadriplegia (34 cases), incomplete myelopathy (13 cases), or intact long-tract function (five cases). The injuries occurred at C2–3 (one patient, with intact function), C4–5 (12 patients), C5–6 (16 patients), C6–7 (19 patients), and C7—T1 (four patients).

Immediate traction (with increasing weight and serial x-ray studies) and/or induction of general anesthesia and muscle relaxation reduced the dislocation in 40 patients, but 12 needed prompt operative reduction as their injuries failed to reduce within 4 hours. Stabilization was indicated for all patients, but three did not undergo surgery: two elderly patients with complete injuries (one refused surgery and one died), and one patient with multiple injuries (fusion was achieved by halo-vest immobilization for 3 months). Of the 49 patients treated operatively, 23 (44.2%) underwent surgery on the day of injury and 26 on a delayed basis (mean 8.7 days postinjury). Surgical treatment included fusion of the posterior facet to a spinous process (44 cases), an anterior Caspar plate technique (three cases), and both procedures (two cases). Of these 49 patients, three (6.1%) with complete injuries died due to an adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Improvement of cord function, judged by functional grade change, was observed at discharge in 15 patients (31.9%) and in 15 (71.4%) of the 21 patients with a 1-year follow-up period. Of the 34 patients with complete myelopathy on admission, three are ambulatory after 1 year, and 13 others have gained function in at least one nerve root. It is concluded that prompt reduction (nonoperative or surgical) and internal stabilization facilitate recovery even in neurologically compromised patients, and that early operative intervention is a wiser option than conservative management. This report also documents a higher incidence of this injury without deficit (five of the 52 cases) than reported in other series.

Restricted access

Ioannis Mavridis and Sophia Anagnostopoulou

Restricted access

Aizik L. Wolf, Lion Levi, Anthony Marmarou, John D. Ward, Paul J. Muizelaar, Sung Choi, Harold Young, Daniele Rigamonti and Walker L. Robinson

✓ Although mortality and morbidity rates from head injury have been reduced substantially by improved prehospital interventions, intensive care, and aggressive management of intracranial pressure (ICP), successful treatment of the primary brain injury has been elusive. In experimental models, tromethamine (THAM) has been effective in treating head injury; this drug acts by entering the cerebrospinal fluid compartment, reducing cerebral acidosis and ICP, and reversing the adverse effects of prophylactic hyperventilation on early recovery.

In this randomized prospective clinical trial, THAM was studied to determine if it had beneficial effects in the early management of severe head injuries and if the adverse effects of hyperventilation could be prevented. A total of 149 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale scores of ≤ 8) were randomly assigned to either a control or a THAM group. Both groups of patients matched in terms of clinical parameters, including age, sex, number of surgical mass lesions, number in each Glasgow Coma Scale stratum, and first ICP measurement. All patients were treated by a standard management protocol, intubated, mechanically ventilated, and maintained in the pCO2 range of 32 to 35 mm Hg for 5 days. Tromethamine was administered as a 0.3-M solution in an initial loading dose (body weight × blood acidity deficit, average 4.27 cc/kg/hr) given over 2 hours, followed by a constant infusion of 1 ml/kg/hr for 5 days. Outcome was measured at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Although analysis indicated no significant difference in outcome between these two groups at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year, there was a difference regarding ICP. The time that ICP was above 20 mm Hg in the first 48 hours postinjury was less in patients treated with THAM (p < 0.05). Also, the number of patients requiring barbiturate coma was significantly less in the THAM group (5.48% vs. 18.4%, p < 0.05). The authors conclude that THAM ameliorates the deleterious effect of prolonged hyperventilation, may be beneficial in ICP control, and warrants further study as to the dosage and timing of administration.

Full access

Tej D. Azad, Maziyar Kalani, Terrill Wolf, Alisa Kearney, Yohan Lee, Lisa Flannery, David Chen, Ryan Berroya, Matthew Eisenberg, Jon Park, Lawrence Shuer, Alison Kerr and John K. Ratliff

OBJECT

Demonstrating the value of spine care requires adequate outcomes assessment. Long-term outcomes are best measured as overall improvement in quality of life (QOL) after surgical intervention. Present registries often require parallel data entry, introducing inefficiencies and limiting compliance. The authors detail the methodology of constructing an integrated electronic health record (EHR) system to collect QOL metrics and demonstrate the effect of data collection on routine clinical workflow. A streamlined approach to collecting QOL data can capture patient data without requiring dual data entry and without increasing clinic visit times.

METHODS

Through extensive literature review, a combination of QOL assessments was selected, consisting of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and -9, Oswestry Disability Index, Neck Disability Index, and visual analog scale for pain. These metrics were used to provide assessment of QOL following spine surgery and were incorporated into standard clinic workflow by a multidisciplinary team of surgeons, advanced practice providers, and health care information technology specialists. A clinical dashboard tracking more than 25 patient variables was developed. Clinic flow was assessed and opportunities for improvement reviewed. Duration of clinic visits before and after initiation of QOL measure capture was recorded, with assessment of mean clinic visit times for the 12 months before and the 12 months after implementation.

RESULTS

The integrated QOL capture was instituted for 3 spine surgeons in a tertiary care academic center. In the 12-month period prior to initiating collection of QOL data, 806 new patient visits were completed with an average visit time of 127.9 ± 51.5 minutes. In the 12 months after implementation, 1013 new patient visits were recorded, with 791 providing QOL measures with an average visit time of 117.0 ± 45.7 minutes. Initially the primary means of collecting patient outcome data was via paper form, with gradual transition to collection via entry into the electronic medical records system. To improve electronic data capture, paper forms were eliminated and an online portal used as part of the patient rooming process. This improved electronic capture to nearly 98% without decreasing the number of patients enrolled in the process.

CONCLUSIONS

A systematic approach to collecting spine-related QOL data within an EHR system is feasible and offers distinct advantages over registries that require dual data entry. The process of data collection does not impact patients’ clinical visit or providers’ clinical workflow. This approach is scalable, and may form the foundation for a decentralized outcomes registry network.

Restricted access

Casey H. Halpern, John A. Wolf, Tracy L. Bale, Albert J. Stunkard, Shabbar F. Danish, Murray Grossman, Jurg L. Jaggi, M. Sean Grady and Gordon H. Baltuch

Obesity is a growing global health problem frequently intractable to current treatment options. Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be effective and safe in the management of various, refractory neuropsychiatric disorders, including obesity. The authors review the literature implicating various neural regions in the pathophysiology of obesity, as well as the evidence supporting these regions as targets for DBS, in order to explore the therapeutic promise of DBS in obesity.

The lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial hypothalamus are the appetite and satiety centers in the brain, respectively. Substantial data support targeting these regions with DBS for the purpose of appetite suppression and weight loss. However, reward sensation associated with highly caloric food has been implicated in overconsumption as well as obesity, and may in part explain the failure rates of conservative management and bariatric surgery. Thus, regions of the brain's reward circuitry, such as the nucleus accumbens, are promising alternatives for DBS in obesity control.

The authors conclude that deep brain stimulation should be strongly considered as a promising therapeutic option for patients suffering from refractory obesity.

Full access

Gautam U. Mehta, Georgios Zenonos, Mohana Rao Patibandla, Chung Jung Lin, Amparo Wolf, Inga Grills, David Mathieu, Brendan McShane, John Y. Lee, Kevin Blas, Douglas Kondziolka, Cheng-Chia Lee, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas are the most common benign extramedullary lesions of the foramen magnum; however, their optimal management remains undefined. Given their location, foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) can cause significant morbidity, and complete microsurgical removal can be challenging. Anterior and anterolateral FMMs carry greater risks with surgery, but they comprise the majority of these lesions. As an alternative to resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used to treat FMMs in small case series. To more clearly define the outcomes of SRS and to delineate a rational management paradigm for these lesions, the authors analyzed the safety and efficacy of SRS for FMM in an international multicenter trial.

METHODS

Seven medical centers participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation (IGKRF) provided data for this retrospective cohort study. Patients who were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery and whose clinical and radiological follow-up was longer than 6 months were eligible for study inclusion. Data from pre- and post-SRS radiological and clinical evaluations were analyzed. Stereotactic radiosurgery treatment variables were recorded.

RESULTS

Fifty-seven patients (39 females and 18 males, with a median age of 64 years) met the study inclusion criteria. Thirty-two percent had undergone prior microsurgical resection. Patients most frequently presented with cranial neuropathy (39%), headache (35%), numbness (32%), and ataxia (30%). Median pre-SRS tumor volume was 2.9 cm3. Median SRS margin dose was 12.5 Gy (range 10–16 Gy). At the last follow-up after SRS, 49% of tumors were stable, 44% had regressed, and 7% had progressed. Progression-free survival rates at 5 and 10 years were each 92%. A greater margin dose was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of tumor regression, with 53% of tumors treated with > 12 Gy regressing. Fifty-two percent of symptomatic patients noted some clinical improvement. Adverse radiation effects were limited to hearing loss and numbness in 1 patient (2%).

CONCLUSIONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery for FMM frequently results in tumor control or tumor regression, as well as symptom improvement. Margin doses > 12 Gy were associated with increased rates of tumor regression. Stereotactic radiosurgery was generally safe and well tolerated. Given its risk-benefit profile, SRS may be particularly useful in the management of small- to moderate-volume anterior and anterolateral FMMs.

Restricted access

Robert G. Whitmore, Jaroslaw Krejza, Gurpreet S. Kapoor, Jason Huse, John H. Woo, Stephanie Bloom, Joanna Lopinto, Ronald L. Wolf, Kevin Judy, Myrna R. Rosenfeld, Jaclyn A. Biegel, Elias R. Melhem and Donald M. O'rourke

Object

Treatment of patients with oligodendrogliomas relies on histopathological grade and characteristic cytogenetic deletions of 1p and 19q, shown to predict radio- and chemosensitivity and prolonged survival. Perfusion weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows for noninvasive determination of relative tumor blood volume (rTBV) and has been used to predict the grade of astrocytic neoplasms. The aim of this study was to use perfusion weighted MR imaging to predict tumor grade and cytogenetic profile in oligodendroglial neoplasms.

Methods

Thirty patients with oligodendroglial neoplasms who underwent preoperative perfusion MR imaging were retrospectively identified. Tumors were classified by histopathological grade and stratified into two cytogenetic groups: 1p or 1p and 19q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) (Group 1), and 19q LOH only on intact alleles (Group 2). Tumor blood volume was calculated in relation to contralateral white matter. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop predictive models of cytogenetic profile and tumor grade.

Results

In World Health Organization Grade II neoplasms, the rTBV was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in Group 1 (mean 2.44, range 0.96–3.28; seven patients) compared with Group 2 (mean 1.69, range 1.27–2.08; seven patients). In Grade III neoplasms, the differences between Group 1 (mean 3.38, range 1.59–6.26; four patients) and Group 2 (mean 2.83, range 1.81–3.76; 12 patients) were not significant. The rTBV was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in Grade III neoplasms (mean 2.97, range 1.59–6.26; 16 patients) compared with Grade II neoplasms (mean 2.07, range 0.96–3.28; 14 patients). The models integrating rTBV with cytogenetic profile and grade showed prediction accuracies of 68 and 73%, respectively.

Conclusions

Oligodendroglial classification models derived from advanced imaging will improve the accuracy of tumor grading, provide prognostic information, and have potential to influence treatment decisions.

Restricted access

I. Jonathan Pomeraniec, Hideyuki Kano, Zhiyuan Xu, Brandon Nguyen, Zaid A. Siddiqui, Danilo Silva, Mayur Sharma, Hesham Radwan, Jonathan A. Cohen, Robert F. Dallapiazza, Christian Iorio-Morin, Amparo Wolf, John A. Jane Jr., Inga S. Grills, David Mathieu, Douglas Kondziolka, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chih-Chun Wu, Christopher P. Cifarelli, Tomas Chytka, Gene H. Barnett, L. Dade Lunsford and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is frequently used to treat residual or recurrent nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas. There is no consensus as to whether GKRS should be used early after surgery or if radiosurgery should be withheld until there is evidence of imaging-defined progression of tumor. Given the high incidence of adenoma progression after subtotal resection over time, the present study intended to evaluate the effect of timing of radiosurgery on outcome.

METHODS

This is a multicenter retrospective review of patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas who underwent transsphenoidal surgery followed by GKRS from 1987 to 2015 at 9 institutions affiliated with the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Patients were matched by adenoma and radiosurgical parameters and stratified based on the interval between last resection and radiosurgery. Operative results, imaging data, and clinical outcomes were compared across groups following early (≤ 6 months after resection) or late (> 6 months after resection) radiosurgery.

RESULTS

After matching, 222 patients met the authors’ study criteria (from an initial collection of 496 patients) and were grouped based on early (n = 111) or late (n = 111) GKRS following transsphenoidal surgery. There was a greater risk of tumor progression after GKRS (p = 0.013) and residual tumor (p = 0.038) in the late radiosurgical group over a median imaging follow-up period of 68.5 months. No significant difference in the occurrence of post-GKRS endocrinopathy was observed (p = 0.68). Thirty percent of patients without endocrinopathy in the early cohort developed new endocrinopathies during the follow-up period versus 27% in the late cohort (p = 0.84). Fourteen percent of the patients in the early group and 25% of the patients in the late group experienced the resolution of endocrine dysfunction after original presentation (p = 0.32).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, early GKRS was associated with a lower risk of radiological progression of subtotally resected nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas compared with expectant management followed by late radiosurgery. Delaying radiosurgery may increase patient risk for long-term adenoma progression. The timing of radiosurgery does not appear to significantly affect the rate of delayed endocrinopathy.