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John R. W. Kestle

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Jerzy Jurkiewicz

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Editorial

Antibiotic-impregnated external ventricular drains

John R. W. Kestle

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John R. W. Kestle

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John R. W. Kestle and Marion L. Walker

Object. Previous reports suggest that adjustable valves may improve the survival of cerebrospinal fluid shunts or relieve shunt-related symptoms. To evaluate these claims, the authors conducted a prospective multicenter cohort study of children who underwent placement of Strata valves.

Methods. Patients undergoing initial shunt placement (Group 1) or shunt revision (Group 2) were treated using Strata valve shunt systems. Valves were adjustable to five performance level settings by using an externally applied magnet. The performance levels were checked using an externally applied hand tool and radiography. Patients were followed for 1 year or until they underwent shunt revision surgery.

Between March 2000 and February 2002, 315 patients were enrolled in the study. In Group 1 (201 patients) the common causes of hydrocephalus were myelomeningocele (16%), aqueductal stenosis (14%), and hemorrhage (14%). The overall 1-year shunt survival was 67%. Causes of shunt failure were obstruction (17%), overdrainage (1.5%), loculated ventricles (2%), and infection (10.6%). Patients in Group 2 (114 patients) were older and the causes of hydrocephalus were similar. Among patients in Group 2 the 1-year shunt survival was 71%.

There were 256 valve adjustments. Symptoms completely resolved (26%) or improved (37%) after 63% of adjustments. When symptoms improved or resolved, they did so within 24 hours in 89% of adjustments. Hand-tool and radiographic readings of valve settings were the same in 234 (98%) of 238 assessments.

Conclusions. The 1-year shunt survival for the Strata valve shunt system when used in initial shunt insertion procedures or shunt revisions was similar to those demonstrated for other valves. Symptom relief or improvement following adjustment was observed in 63% of patients. Hand-tool assessment of performance level settings reliably predicted radiographic assessments.

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John R. W. Kestle

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Prospective multicenter studies in pediatric hydrocephalus

JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article

John R. W. Kestle and Jay Riva-Cambrin

Prospective multicenter clinical research studies in pediatric hydrocephalus are relatively rare. They cover a broad spectrum of hydrocephalus topics, including management of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants, shunt techniques and equipment, shunt outcomes, endoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus, and prevention and treatment of infection. The research methodologies include randomized trials, cohort studies, and registry-based studies. This review describes prospective multicenter studies in pediatric hydrocephalus since 1990. Many studies have included all forms of hydrocephalus and used device or procedure failure as the primary outcome. Although such studies have yielded useful findings, they might miss important treatment effects in specific subgroups. As multicenter study networks grow, larger patient numbers will allow studies with more focused entry criteria based on known and evolving prognostic factors. In addition, increased use of patient-centered outcomes such as neurodevelopmental assessment and quality of life should be measured and emphasized in study results. Well-planned multicenter clinical studies can significantly affect the care of children with hydrocephalus and will continue to have an important role in improving care for these children and their families.