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Stephen M. Russell and John G. Golfinos

✓ The incidence and character of neurological deficits following resection of glial neoplasms localized to the Heschl gyrus are currently unknown. In this series, the authors report the clinical presentation, management, and postoperative course of three patients with right hemisphere Heschl gyrus gliomas, one of whom developed difficulty with music production and comprehension postoperatively.

Resection of right hemisphere Heschl gyrus gliomas can result in deficits involving music comprehension. Preliminary evidence suggests that when these deficits occur, they may be transient in nature.

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Zane Schnurman, John G. Golfinos, J. Thomas Roland Jr. and Douglas Kondziolka

OBJECTIVE

It is common for a medical disorder to be managed or researched by individuals who work within different specialties. It is known that both neurosurgeons and neurotologists manage vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. While overlap in specialty focus has the potential to stimulate multidisciplinary collaboration and innovative thinking, there is a risk of specialties forming closed-communication loops, called knowledge silos, which may inhibit knowledge diffusion. This study quantitatively assessed knowledge sharing between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the subject of VS.

METHODS

A broad Web of Science search was used to download details for 4439 articles related to VS through 2016. The publishing journal’s specialty and the authors’ specialties (based on author department) were determined for available articles. All 114,647 of the article references were categorized by journal specialty. The prevalence of several VS topics was assessed using keyword searches of titles.

RESULTS

For articles written by neurosurgeons, 44.0% of citations were from neurosurgery journal articles and 23.4% were from otolaryngology journals. The citations of otolaryngology authors included 11.6% neurosurgery journals and 56.5% otolaryngology journals. Both author specialty and journal specialty led to more citations of the same specialty, though author specialty had the largest effect. Comparing the specialties’ literature, several VS topics had significantly different levels of coverage, including radiosurgery and hearing topics. Despite the availability of the Internet, there has been no change in the proportions of references for either specialty since 1997 (the year PubMed became publicly available).

CONCLUSIONS

Partial knowledge silos are observed between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the topic of VS, based on the peer-reviewed literature. The increase in access provided by the Internet and searchable online databases has not decreased specialty reference bias. These findings offer lessons to improve cross-specialty collaboration, physician learning, and consensus building.

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Stephen M. Russell, Robert Elliott, David Forshaw, Patrick J. Kelly and John G. Golfinos

Object. The goal of this study is to report the incidence and clinical evolution of neurological deficits in patients who underwent resection of gliomas confined to the parietal lobe.

Methods. Patient demographics, findings of serial neurological examinations, tumor location and neuroimaging characteristics, extent of resection, and surgical outcomes were tabulated by reviewing inpatient and office records, as well as all pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 28 consecutive patients who underwent resection of a glial neoplasm found on imaging studies to be confined to the parietal lobe. Neurological deficits were correlated with hemispheric dominance, location of the lesion within the superior or inferior parietal lobules, subcortical extension, and involvement of the postcentral gyrus.

The tumors were located in the dominant hemisphere in 18 patients (64%); had a mean diameter of 39 mm (range 14–69 mm); were isolated to the superior parietal lobule in six patients (21%) and to the inferior parietal lobule in eight patients (29%); and involved both lobules in 14 patients (50%). Gross-total resection, documented by MR imaging, was achieved in 24 patients (86%). Postoperatively, nine patients (32%) experienced new neurological deficits, whereas seven (25%) had an improvement in their preoperative deficit. A correlation was noted between larger tumors and the presence of neurological deficits both before and after resection. Postoperatively higher-level (association) parietal deficits were noted only in patients with tumors involving both the superior and inferior parietal lobules in the dominant hemisphere. At the 3-month follow-up examination, five of nine new postoperative deficits had resolved.

Conclusions. Neurological deterioration and improvement occur after resection of parietal lobe gliomas. Parietal lobe association deficits, specifically the components of Gerstmann syndrome, are mostly associated with large tumors that involve both the superior and inferior parietal lobules of the dominant hemisphere. New hemineglect or sensory extinction was not noted in any patient following resection of lesions located in the nondominant hemisphere. Nevertheless, primary parietal lobe deficits (for example, a visual field loss or cortical sensory syndrome) occurred in patients regardless of hemispheric dominance.

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Omar Tanweer, Taylor A. Wilson, Stephen P. Kalhorn, John G. Golfinos, Paul P. Huang and Douglas Kondziolka

OBJECT

Physicians are often solicited by patients or colleagues for clinical recommendations they would make for themselves if faced by a clinical situation. The act of making a recommendation can alter the clinical course being taken. The authors sought to understand this dynamic across different neurosurgical scenarios by examining how neurosurgeons value the procedures that they offer.

METHODS

The authors conducted an online survey using the Congress of Neurological Surgeons listserv in May 2013. Respondents were randomized to answer either as the surgeon or as the patient. Questions encompassed an array of distinct neurosurgical scenarios. Data on practice parameters and experience levels were also collected.

RESULTS

Of the 534 survey responses, 279 responded as the “neurosurgeon” and 255 as the “patient.” For both vestibular schwannoma and arteriovenous malformation management, more respondents chose resection for their patient but radiosurgery for themselves (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). Aneurysm coiling was chosen more often than clipping, but those whose practice was ≥ 30% open cerebrovascular neurosurgery were less likely to choose coiling. Overall, neurosurgeons who focus predominantly on tumors were more aggressive in managing the glioma, vestibular schwannoma, arteriovenous malformation, and trauma. Neurosurgeons more than 10 years out of residency were less likely to recommend surgery for management of spinal pain, aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, and trauma scenarios.

CONCLUSIONS

In the majority of cases, altering the role of the surgeon did not change the decision to pursue treatment. In certain clinical scenarios, however, neurosurgeons chose treatment options for themselves that were different from what they would have chosen for (or recommended to) their patients. For the management of vestibular schwannomas, arteriovenous malformations, intracranial aneurysms, and hypertensive hemorrhages, responses favored less invasive interventions when the surgeon was the patient. These findings are likely a result of cognitive biases, previous training, experience, areas of expertise, and personal values.

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John G. Golfinos, Brian C. Fitzpatrick, Lawrence R. Smith and Robert F. Spetzler

✓ The viewing wand is a frameless stereotactic arm that can be used in conjunction with computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to provide image-based intraoperative navigation. The authors report a series of 325 cases in which the viewing wand was used and evaluated for its utility, ease of integration into the standard surgical setup, reliability, and real-world accuracy. The use of the system was associated with minimal additional effort or time spent in setting up the procedure as long as a trained technician performed the data transfer and reconstruction. The viewing wand was used in 165 cases in conjunction with CT and 145 cases with MR imaging. The system was reliable, achieving a useful registration in 310 of 325 cases (95.4%). Fiducial-based registration was more accurate than an anatomical landmark—surface fit algorithm method of registration (mean 2.8 vs. 5.6 mm error, respectively, for CT; and mean 3.0 vs. 6.2 mm for MR imaging). The actual error of the system in estimating the position of the probe tip just after registration was judged by the operating surgeon to be less than 2 mm in 92% of MR imaging cases and in 82% of CT cases, between 2 and 5 mm in 7% of MR imaging and 17% of CT cases, and greater than 5 mm in less than 1% of MR imaging and 1.2% of CT cases. The accuracy of the system degraded during the operation, so that by the third evaluation the error was estimated to be less than 2 mm in 77% of MR imaging and 62% of CT cases.

Overall, the viewing wand was found to be reliable and accurate. This real-world accuracy was sufficient for a broad range of applications including glioma resection, cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures, resection of small subcortical masses, and temporal lobe resection. The system is a useful navigational aid that allows a direct approach to intracranial pathology without the drawbacks of application and the limitations of a stereotactic frame.

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Pamela C. Roehm, Jon Mallen-St. Clair, Daniel Jethanamest, John G. Golfinos, William Shapiro, Susan Waltzman and J. Thomas Roland Jr.

Object

The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) who have intact ipsilateral cochlear nerves can have open-set speech discrimination following cochlear implantation.

Methods

Records of 7 patients with documented NF2 were reviewed to determine speech discrimination outcomes following cochlear implantation. Outcomes were measured using consonant-nucleus-consonant words and phonemes; Hearing in Noise Test sentences in quiet; and City University of New York sentences in quiet and in noise.

Results

Preoperatively, none of the patients had open-set speech discrimination. Five of the 7 patients had previously undergone excision of ipsilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS). One of the patients who received a cochlear implant had received radiation therapy for ipsilateral VS, and another was undergoing observation for a small ipsilateral VS. Following cochlear implantation, 4 of 7 patients with NF2 had open-set speech discrimination following cochlear implantation during extended follow-up (15–120 months). Two of the 3 patients without open-set speech understanding had a prolonged period between ipsilateral VS resection and cochlear implantation (120 and 132 months), and had cochlear ossification at the time of implantation. The other patient without open-set speech understanding had good contralateral hearing at the time of cochlear implantation. Despite these findings, 6 of the 7 patients were daily users of their cochlear implants, and the seventh is an occasional user, indicating that all of the patients subjectively gained some benefit from their implants.

Conclusions

Cochlear implantation can provide long-term auditory rehabilitation, with open-set speech discrimination for patients with NF2 who have intact ipsilateral cochlear nerves. Factors that can affect implant performance include the following: 1) a prolonged time between VS resection and implantation; and 2) cochlear ossification.

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Ashwatha Narayana, Deborah Gruber, Saroj Kunnakkat, John G. Golfinos, Erik Parker, Shahzad Raza, David Zagzag, Patricia Eagan and Michael L. Gruber

Object

The presence of angiogenesis is a hallmark of glioblastoma (GBM). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which drives angiogenesis, provides an additional target for conventional therapy. The authors conducted a prospective clinical trial to test the effectiveness of bevacizumab, an inhibitor of VEGF, in newly diagnosed GBM.

Methods

From 2006 through 2010, 51 eligible patients with newly diagnosed GBM were treated with involved-field radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide (75 mg/m2 daily for 42 days) along with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks), starting 29 days after surgery. This was followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide therapy (150 mg/m2 on Days 1–7 of a 28-day cycle) with bevacizumab administered at 10 mg/kg on Days 8 and 22 of each 28-day cycle.

Results

The 6- and 12-month progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 85.1% and 51%, respectively. The 12- and 24-month overall survival (OS) rates were 85.1% and 42.5%, respectively. Grade III/IV toxicities were noted in 10 patients (19.6%). No treatment-related deaths were observed. Asymptomatic intracranial bleeding was noted in 5 patients.

Conclusions

The addition of bevacizumab to conventional therapy in newly diagnosed GBM appears to improve both PFS and OS in patients with newly diagnosed GBM, with acceptable morbidity. A shift toward diffuse relapse was noted in a significant number of patients. Ongoing Phase III clinical trials will show the true benefit of this antiangiogenic approach.

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Amparo Wolf, Svetlana Kvint, Abraham Chachoua, Anna Pavlick, Melissa Wilson, Bernadine Donahue, John G. Golfinos, Joshua Silverman and Douglas Kondziolka

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of brain metastases is increasing with improved systemic therapies, many of which have a limited impact on intracranial disease. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a first-line management option for brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a threshold tumor size below which local control (LC) rates approach 100%, and to relate these findings to the use of routine surveillance brain imaging.

METHODS

From a prospective registry, 200 patients with 1237 brain metastases were identified who underwent SRS between December 2012 and May 2015. The median imaging follow-up duration was 7.9 months, and the median margin dose was 18 Gy. The maximal diameter and volume of tumors were measured. Histological analysis included 96 patients with non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), 40 with melanoma, 35 with breast cancer, and 29 with other histologies.

RESULTS

Almost 50% of brain metastases were NSCLCs and commonly measured less than 6 mm in maximal diameter or 70 mm3 in volume. Thirty-three of 1237 tumors had local progression at a median of 8.8 months. The 1- and 2-year actuarial LC rates were 97% and 93%, respectively. LC of 100% was achieved for all intracranial metastases less than 100 mm3 in volume or 6 mm in diameter. Patients whose tumors at first SRS were less than 10 mm maximal diameter or a volume of 250 mm3 had improved overall survival.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS can achieve LC rates approaching 100% for subcentimeter metastases. The earlier initial detection and prompt treatment of small intracranial metastases may prevent the development of neurological symptoms and the need for resection, and improve overall survival. To identify tumors when they are small, routine surveillance brain imaging should be considered as part of the standard of care for lung, breast, and melanoma metastases.

■ CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: prognostic; study design: retrospective cohort; evidence: Class II.

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Zane Schnurman, Aya Nakamura, Michelle W. McQuinn, John G. Golfinos, J. Thomas Roland Jr. and Douglas Kondziolka

OBJECTIVE

There remains a large discrepancy among surgeons in expectations of vestibular schwannoma (VS) growth. The anticipated growth rate of a VS and its potential clinical impact are important factors when deciding whether to observe the lesion over time or to intervene. Previous studies of VS natural growth remain limited, mostly confined to linear measurements, often without high-resolution, thin-sequence imaging. The present study comprehensively assessed natural tumor growth rates using volumetric measurements.

METHODS

Between 2012 and 2018, 212 treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with a unilateral VS were evaluated. A total of 699 MR images were assessed, with a range of 2–11 MR images per patient. All MR images preceded any intervention, with patients subsequently being observed through completion of data analysis (36%) or treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (32%) or microsurgical resection (32%). To determine precise tumor volumes, the tumor area was outlined on every slice, and the products of the area and slice thickness were summed (99% of scans were ≤ 1-mm slice thickness). A multilevel model with random effects was used to assess the mean volume change over time. Each tumor was categorized as one of the following: growing (volume increase by more than 20% per year), fast growing (volume increase by more than 100% per year), stable (volume change between 20% decrease and 20% increase per year), and shrinking (volume decrease by more than 20% per year).

RESULTS

The mean VS volumetric growth rate was 33.5% per year (95% CI 26.9%–40.5%, p < 0.001). When assessing the frequencies of individual tumor annual growth rates, 66% demonstrated growth (30% fast growing), 33% were stable, and 1% exhibited shrinking over an average interval of 25 months. Larger tumors were associated with increased absolute growth, but there was no relationship between tumor size and proportional growth rate. There was also no relationship between patient age and tumor growth rate.

CONCLUSIONS

This study comprehensively assessed VS volumetric growth rates using high-resolution images and was conducted in a large and diverse patient sample. The majority of the tumors exhibited growth, with about one-third growing at a rate of 100% per year. These findings may contribute to a consensus understanding of tumor behavior and inform clinical decisions regarding whether to intervene or observe.

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Carolina Gesteira Benjamin, Rajeev D. Sen, John G. Golfinos, Chandra Sen, J. Thomas Roland Jr., Sean McMenomey and Donato Pacione

OBJECTIVE

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a known complication of surgeries near the major dural venous sinuses. While the majority of CVSTs are asymptomatic, severe sinus thromboses can have devastating consequences. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the true incidence and risk factors associated with postoperative CVST and comment on management strategies.

METHODS

A prospective study of 74 patients who underwent a retrosigmoid, translabyrinthine, or suboccipital approach for posterior fossa tumors, or a supratentorial craniotomy for parasagittal/falcine tumors, was performed. All patients underwent pre- and postoperative imaging to evaluate sinus patency. Demographic, clinical, and operative data were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to identify incidence and risk factors.

RESULTS

Twenty-four (32.4%) of 74 patients had postoperative MR venograms confirming CVST, and all were asymptomatic. No risk factors, including age (p = 0.352), BMI (p = 0.454), sex (p = 0.955), surgical approach (p = 0.909), length of surgery (p = 0.785), fluid balance (p = 0.943), mannitol use (p = 0.136), tumor type (p = 0.46, p = 0.321), or extent of resection (p = 0.253), were statistically correlated with thrombosis. All patients were treated conservatively, with only 1 patient receiving intravenous fluids. There were no instances of venous infarctions, hemorrhages, or neurological deficits. The rate of CSF leakage was significantly higher in the thrombosis group than in the nonthrombosis group (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

This prospective study shows that the radiographic incidence of postoperative CVST is higher than that previously reported in retrospective studies. In the absence of symptoms, these thromboses can be treated conservatively. While no risk factors were identified, there may be an association between postoperative CVST and CSF leak.