Ann Marie Flannery, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Mandeep S. Tamber, and Joanna Kemp
This systematic review was undertaken to answer the following question: Do technical adjuvants such as ventricular endoscopic placement, computer-assisted electromagnetic guidance, or ultrasound guidance improve ventricular shunt function and survival?
The US National Library of Medicine PubMed/MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were queried using MeSH headings and key words specifically chosen to identify published articles detailing the use of cerebrospinal fluid shunts for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. Articles meeting specific criteria that had been delineated a priori were then examined, and data were abstracted and compiled in evidentiary tables. These data were then analyzed by the Pediatric Hydrocephalus Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines Task Force to consider evidence-based treatment recommendations.
The search yielded 163 abstracts, which were screened for potential relevance to the application of technical adjuvants in shunt placement. Fourteen articles were selected for full-text review. One additional article was selected during a review of literature citations. Eight of these articles were included in the final recommendations concerning the use of endoscopy, ultrasonography, and electromagnetic image guidance during shunt placement, whereas the remaining articles were excluded due to poor evidence or lack of relevance.
The evidence included 1 Class I, 1 Class II, and 6 Class III papers. An evidentiary table of relevant articles was created.
Recommendation: There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of endoscopic guidance for routine ventricular catheter placement. Strength of Recommendation: Level I, high degree of clinical certainty.
Recommendation: The routine use of ultrasound-assisted catheter placement is an option. Strength of Recommendation: Level III, unclear clinical certainty.
Recommendation: The routine use of computer-assisted electromagnetic (EM) navigation is an option. Strength of Recommendation: Level III, unclear clinical certainty.
Joanna Kemp, Ann Marie Flannery, Mandeep S. Tamber, and Ann-Christine Duhaime
The objective of this guideline was to answer the following question: Do the entry point and position of the ventricular catheter have an effect on shunt function and survival?
Both the US National Library of Medicine/MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were queried using MeSH headings and key words specifically chosen to identify published articles detailing the use of CSF shunts for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. Articles meeting specific criteria that had been delineated a priori were then examined, and data were abstracted and compiled in evidentiary tables.
The search yielded 184 abstracts, which were screened for potential relevance to the clinical question of the effect of ventricular catheter entry site on shunt survival. An initial review of the abstracts identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria, and these were recalled for full-text review. After review of these articles, only 4 were noted to be relevant for an analysis of the impact of entry point on shunt survival; an additional paper was retrieved during the review of full-text articles and was included as evidence to support the recommendation. The evidence included 1 Class II paper and 4 Class III papers. An evidentiary table was created including the relevant articles.
Recommendation: There is insufficient evidence to recommend the occipital versus frontal point of entry for the ventricular catheter; therefore, both entry points are options for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. Strength of Recommendation: Level III, unclear degree of clinical certainty.
Robert C. Rennert, Reid Hoshide, Mark Calayag, Joanna Kemp, David D. Gonda, Hal S. Meltzer, Takanori Fukushima, John D. Day, and Michael L. Levy
Treatment of hemorrhagic cavernous malformations within the lateral pontine region demands meticulous surgical planning and execution to maximize resection while minimizing morbidity. The authors report a single institution’s experience using the extended middle fossa rhomboid approach for the safe resection of hemorrhagic cavernomas involving the lateral pons.
A retrospective chart review was performed to identify and review the surgical outcomes of patients who underwent an extended middle fossa rhomboid approach for the resection of hemorrhagic cavernomas involving the lateral pons during a 10-year period at Rady Children’s Hospital of San Diego. Surgical landmarks for this extradural approach were based on the Fukushima dual-fan model, which defines the rhomboid based on the following anatomical structures: 1) the junction of the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSPN) and mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve; 2) the lateral edge of the porus trigeminus; 3) the intersection of the petrous ridge and arcuate eminence; and 4) the intersection of the GSPN, geniculate ganglion, and arcuate eminence. The boundaries of maximal bony removal for this approach are the clivus inferiorly below the inferior petrosal sinus; unroofing of the internal auditory canal posteriorly; skeletonizing the geniculate ganglion, GSPN, and internal carotid artery laterally; and drilling under the Gasserian ganglion anteriorly. This extradural petrosectomy allowed for an approach to all lesions from an area posterolateral to the basilar artery near its junction with cranial nerve (CN) VI, superior to the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and lateral to the origin of CN V. Retraction of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve during this approach allowed avoidance of the region involving CN IV and the superior cerebellar artery.
Eight pediatric patients (4 girls and 4 boys, mean age of 13.2 ± 4.6 years) with hemorrhagic cavernomas involving the lateral pons and extension to the pial surface were treated using the surgical approach described above. Seven cavernomas were completely resected. In the eighth patient, a second peripheral lesion was not resected with the primary lesion. One patient had a transient CN VI palsy, and 2 patients had transient trigeminal hypesthesia/dysesthesia. One patient experienced a CSF leak that was successfully treated by oversewing the wound.
The extended middle fossa approach can be used for resection of lateral pontine hemorrhagic cavernomas with minimal morbidity in the pediatric population.
Georgios Alexopoulos, Nabiha Quadri, Maheen Khan, Henna Bazai, Carla Formoso Pico, Connor Fraser, Neha Kulkarni, Joanna Kemp, Jeroen Coppens, Richard Bucholz, and Philippe Mercier
Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is the most lethal of all firearm injuries, with reported survival rates of less than 20%. The projectile trajectory (PT) has been shown to impact mortality, but the significant lobar tracks have not been defined. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to test for associations between distinct ballistic trajectories, missile types, and patient outcomes.
A total of 243 patients who presented with a PBI to the Saint Louis University emergency department from 2008 through 2019 were identified from the hospital registry. Conventional CT scans combined with 3D CT reconstructions and medical records were reviewed for each patient to identify distinct PTs.
A total of 65 ballistic lobar trajectories were identified. Multivariable regression models were used, and the results were compared with those in the literature. Penetrating and perforating types of PBI associated with bitemporal (t-statistic = −2.283, p = 0.023) or frontal-to-contralateral parietal (t-statistic = −2.311, p = 0.025) projectile paths were universally found to be fatal. In the group in which the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at presentation was lower than 8, a favorable penetrating missile trajectory was one that involved a single frontal lobe (adjusted OR 0.02 [95% CI 0.00–0.38], p = 0.022) or parietal lobe (adjusted OR 0.15 [95% CI 0.02–0.97], p = 0.048). Expanding or fragmenting types of projectiles carry higher mortality rates (OR 2.53 [95% CI 1.32–4.83], p < 0.001) than do nondeformable missiles. Patient age was not associated with worse outcomes when controlled by other significant predictive factors.
Patients with penetrating or perforating types of PBI associated with bitemporal or frontal-to-contralateral parietal PTs should be considered as potential donor candidates. Trauma patients with penetrating missile trajectories involving a single frontal or parietal lobe should be considered for early neurosurgical intervention, especially in the circumstances of a low GCS score (< 8). Surgeons should not base their decision-making solely on advanced patient age to defer further treatment. Patients with PBIs caused by nondeformable types of projectiles can survive multiple simultaneous intracranial missile trajectories.
Ann Marie Flannery, Catherine A. Mazzola, Paul Klimo Jr., Ann-Christine Duhaime, Lissa C. Baird, Mandeep S. Tamber, David D. Limbrick Jr., Dimitrios C. Nikas, Joanna Kemp, Alexander F. Post, Kurtis I. Auguste, Asim F. Choudhri, Laura S. Mitchell, and Debby Buffa