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Gerrit Fischer, Jana Rediker and Joachim Oertel

OBJECTIVE

The quality of surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms is determined by complete aneurysm occlusion while preserving blood flow in the parent, branching, and perforating arteries. For a few years, there has been a nearly noninvasive and cost-effective technique for intraoperative flow evaluation: microscope-integrated indocyanine green videoangiography (mICG-VA). This method allows for real-time information about blood flow in the aneurysm and the involved vessels, but its limitations are seen in the evaluation of structures located in the depth of the surgical field, especially through small craniotomies. To compensate for these drawbacks, an endoscope-integrated ICG-VA (eICG-VA) was developed. The objective of the present study was to assess the use of eICG-VA in comparison with mICG-VA for intraoperative blood flow evaluation.

METHODS

In the period between January 2011 and January 2015, 216 patients with a total of 248 intracranial saccular aneurysms were surgically treated in the Department of Neurosurgery of Saarland University Medical Center in Homburg/Saar, Germany. During 95 surgeries in 88 patients with a total of 108 aneurysms, intraoperative evaluation was performed with both eICG-VA and mICG-VA. After clipping, evaluation of complete aneurysm occlusion and flow in the parent, branching, and perforating arteries was performed using both methods. Intraoperative applicability of each technique was compared with the other and with postoperative digital subtraction angiography as a standard evaluation technique.

RESULTS

Evaluation of completeness of aneurysm occlusion and of flow in the parent, branching, and perforating arteries was more successful with eICG-VA than with mICG-VA, especially for aneurysm neck assessment (88.9% vs 69.4%). For 63.9% of the aneurysms (n = 69), both methods were equivalent, but in 30.6% of the cases (n = 33), the eICG-VA provided better results for evaluating the post-clipping situation. In 4.6% of these aneurysms (n = 5), the information given by the additional endoscope considerably changed the surgical procedure. Thus, one residual aneurysm (0.9%), two neck remnants (1.9%), and two branch occlusions (1.9%) could be prevented. Nevertheless, two incomplete aneurysm occlusions (1.9%) and six neck remnants (5.6%) were revealed by postoperative digital subtraction angiography.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscope-integrated ICG-VA seems to be an improvement that might increase the quality of aneurysm surgery by providing additional information. It offers higher illumination, magnification, and an extended viewing angle. Its main advantage is its ability to assess deep-seated aneurysms, especially through small craniotomies, but further studies are required.

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Editorial

Anterior third ventriculostomy: an endoscopic variation on a theme

Mark M. Souweidane

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Guilherme Ramina Montibeller, Benjamin Schackmann, Steffi Urbschat and Joachim M. K. Oertel

OBJECTIVE

The risk of injury of the cochlear nerve during angle (CPA) surgery is high. Granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been found in various experimental models of peripheral and CNS injury to have a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation. However, to the authors' knowledge, the influence of G-CSF on cochlear nerve regeneration has not been reported. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of G-CSF after a partial cochlear nerve lesion in rats.

METHODS

A lesion of the right cochlear nerve in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was created using a water-jet dissector with a pressure of 8 bar. In the first group (G-CSF-post), G-CSF was administrated on Days 1, 3, and 5 after the surgery. The second group (G-CSF-pre/post) was treated with G-CSF 1 day before and 1, 3, and 5 days after applying the nerve injury. The control group received sodium chloride after nerve injury at the various time points. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were measured directly before and after nerve injury and on Days 1 and 7 to evaluate the acoustic function of the cochlear nerve. The animals were sacrificed 1 week after the operation, and their brains were fixed in formalin. Nissl staining of the cochlear nuclei was performed, and histological sections were analyzed with a light microscope and an image-processing program. The numbers of neurons in the cochlear nuclei were assessed.

RESULTS

The values for Waves 2 and 4 of the BAEPs decreased abruptly in all 3 groups in the direct postoperative measurement. Although the amplitude in the control group did not recover, it increased in both treatment groups. According to 2-way ANOVA, groups treated with G-CSF had a significant increase in BAEP Wave II amplitudes on the right side (p = 0.0401) after the applied cochlear nerve injury. With respect to Wave IV, a trend toward better recovery in the G-CSF groups was found, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. In the histological analysis, higher numbers of neurons were found in the G-CSF groups. In the statistical analysis, the difference in the numbers of neurons between the control and G-CSF-post groups reached significance (p = 0.0086). The difference in the numbers of neurons between the control and G-CSF-pre/post groups and between the G-CSF-post and G-CSF-pre/post groups did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of G-CSF improved the function of the eighth cranial nerve and protected cochlear nucleus cells from destruction after a controlled partial injury of the nerve. These findings might be relevant for surgery that involves CPA tumors. The use of G-CSF in patients with a lesion in the CPA might improve postoperative outcomes.

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Benedikt W. Burkhardt, Simon J. Müller, Anne-Catherine Wagner and Joachim M. Oertel

OBJECTIVE

Infection of the cervical spine is a rare disease but is associated with significant risk of neurological deterioration, morbidity, and a poor response to nonsurgical management. The ideal treatment for cervical spondylodiscitis (CSD) remains unclear.

METHODS

Hospital records of patients who underwent acute surgical management for CSD were reviewed. Information about preoperative neurological status, surgical treatment, peri- and postoperative processes, antibiotic treatment, repeated procedure, and neurological status at follow-up examination were analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 30 consecutive patients (17 male and 13 female) were included in this retrospective study. The mean age at procedures was 68.1 years (range 50–82 years), with mean of 6 coexisting comorbidities. Preoperatively neck pain was noted in 21 patients (70.0%), arm pain in 12 (40.0%), a paresis in 12 (40.0%), sensory deficit in 8 (26.7%), tetraparesis in 6 (20%), a septicemia in 4 (13.3%). Preoperative MRI scan revealed a CSD in one-level fusion in 21 patients (70.0%), in two-level fusions in 7 patients (23.3%), and in three-level fusions in 2 patients (6.7%). In 16 patients an antibiotic treatment was initiated prior to surgical treatment. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with cervical plating (ACDF+CP) was performed in 17 patients and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) in 12 patients. Additional posterior decompression was performed in one case of ACDF+CP and additional posterior fixation in ten cases of ACCF procedures. Three patients died due to multiple organ failure (10%). Revision surgery was performed in 6 patients (20.7%) within the first 2 weeks postoperatively. All patients received antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks. At the first follow-up (mean 3 month) no recurrent infection was detected on blood workup and MRI scans. At final follow-up (mean 18 month), all patients reported improvement of neck pain, all but one patients were free of radicular pain and had no sensory deficits, and all patients showed improvement of motor strength. One patient with preoperative tetraparesis was able to ambulate.

CONCLUSIONS

CSD is a disease that is associated with severe neurological deterioration. Anterior cervical surgery with radical debridement and appropriate antibiotic treatment achieves complete healing. Anterior cervical plating with the use of polyetheretherketone cages has no negative effect of the healing process. Posterior fixation is recommended following ACCF procedures.

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Joachim Oertel, Joachim Kurt Krauss and Michael Robert Gaab

Neuroendoscopic techniques are often considered inapplicable to lesion resection because most lesions are too large for effective endoscopic resection in an appropriate time frame. To evaluate the potential of ultrasonic aspiration in neuroendoscopic procedures, the authors developed a new handpiece for endoscopic application. The instrument was subsequently tested in 10 cadaveric pig brains and applied in 5 clinical cases. In the pig brain, a precise and accurate aspiration of ventricular ependyma and brain parenchyma was obtained. Clinically, the device was applied in 3 patients with obstructive hydrocephalus, and via an endonasal transsphenoidal approach in 2 patients with pituitary macroadenomas. In all cases, the lesion was effectively aspirated without complications. Ultrasonic aspiration can be applied safely and successfully in selected endoscopic procedures. The use of this technique could expand the indications for endoscopic approaches to include intraventricular lesions and in minimally invasive transsphenoidal endonasal approaches.

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Christoph Tschan, Michael Robert Gaab, Joachim Kurt Krauss and Joachim Oertel

Object

Waterjet dissection has been shown to protect intracerebral vessels, but no experience exists in applying this modality to the cranial nerves. To evaluate its potential, the authors examined waterjet dissection of the vestibulocochlear nerve in rats.

Methods

Lateral suboccipital craniectomy and microsurgical preparation of the vestibulocochlear nerve were performed in 42 rats. Water pressures of 2–10 bar were applied, and the effect was microscopically evaluated. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were used to define nerve function compared with preoperative values and the healthy contralateral side. The final anatomical preparation documented the morphological and histological effects of waterjet pressure on the nerve.

Results

In using up to 6 bar, the cochlear nerve was preserved in all cases. Eight bar moderately damaged the nerve surface. A 10-bar jet markedly damaged or even completely dissected the nerve. Time course analysis of the ABR demonstrated complete functional nerve preservation up to 6 bar after 6 weeks in all rats. Waterjet dissection with 8 bar was associated with a 60% recovery of ABR. In the 10-bar group, no recovery was seen.

Conclusions

Microsurgical dissection of cranial nerves is possible using waterjet dissection while preserving both morphology and function. The aforementioned jet pressures are known to be effective in neurosurgical treatment of tumors. Thus, waterjet dissection may be useful in skull base surgery including dissection of cranial nerves from tumors. Further studies on this subject are encouraged.

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Sonja Vulcu, Leonie Eickele, Giuseppe Cinalli, Wolfgang Wagner and Joachim Oertel

OBJECT

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is the procedure of choice in the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus. The excellent clinical and radiological success rates are well known. Nevertheless, very few papers have addressed the very long term outcomes of the procedure in very large series. The authors present a large case series of 113 patients who underwent 126 ETVs, and they highlight the initial postoperative outcome after 3 months and long-term follow-up with an average of 7 years.

METHODS

All patients who underwent ETV at the Department of Neurosurgery, Mainz University Hospital, between 1993 and 1999 were evaluated. Obstructive hydrocephalus was the causative pathology in all cases.

RESULTS

The initial clinical success rate was 82% and decreased slightly to 78% during long-term follow-up. Long-term success was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Overall, ETV failed in 31 patients. These patients underwent a second ETV or shunt treatment. A positive impact on long-term success was seen for age older than 6 months, and for obstruction due to cysts or benign aqueductal stenosis. The complication rate was 9% with 5 intraoperative and 5 postoperative events.

CONCLUSIONS

The high clinical success rate in short-term and long-term follow-up confirms ETV’s status as the gold standard for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus, especially for distinct pathologies. The patient’s age and underlying pathology may influence the outcome. These factors should be considered carefully preoperatively by the surgeon.

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Joachim M. K. Oertel, Yvonne Mondorf and Michael R. Gaab

Obstructive hydrocephalus due to giant basilar artery (BA) aneurysm is a rare finding, and endoscopic treatment has not been reported. Here the authors present their experience with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in obstructive hydrocephalus due to giant BA aneurysm. Between December 2000 and March 2007, 3 patients (2 men and 1 woman; age range 32–80 years) underwent an ETV for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a giant BA aneurysm. All 3 patients presented with cephalgia, nausea, vomiting, and a variable decrease in consciousness. An obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a giant BA aneurysm was found in each case as the underlying pathological entity. Intraoperatively, a narrowing of the third ventricle by upward displacement of the tegmentum was found in all 3 patients. A standard ETV was performed and included an inspection of the prepontine cisterns. The endoscopic treatment was successful in all patients with respect to clinical signs and radiological ventricular enlargement. No complications were observed. In all, the endoscopic ventriculostomy was proven to be a successful treatment option in obstructive hydrocephalus even if it is caused by untreated giant BA aneurysm.

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Juergen Piek, Joachim Oertel and Michael Robert Gaab

Object. Waterjet dissection represents a new minimally traumatic surgical method for dissection that can be used in various parenchymal organs, in which it allows highly precise parenchymal dissection while preserving blood vessels, resulting in reduced intraoperative blood loss. This study was performed to investigate the clinical application of this new technique in neurosurgical procedures, such as brain tumor resection and epilepsy surgery.

Methods. Thirty-four patients with gliomas (Grades II–IV), cerebral metastases, temporal lobe epilepsy, or cerebellar hemangioblastomas, and one patient with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis were treated surgically with the aid of the waterjet. Resection was performed using waterjet dissection in combination with conventional neurosurgical procedures. Intraoperatively, the waterjet was easy to handle, and no complications due to the device were observed. Dissection of tissue was possible for all pathological conditions, and pressures between 3 and 45 bars were used. In gliomas, metastases, epilepsy surgery, and hemangioblastoma, the tissue was dissected at pressures between 3 and 17 bars, which preserved blood vessels. Dissection of meningiomas and the ICA stenosis required higher pressures (between 20 and 45 bars); with these pressures, blood vessels were also dissected.

Conclusions. These results indicate that the waterjet dissection procedure can be used intraoperatively without complications. This device appears to be particularly suitable for the dissection of highly vascularized gliomas or normal brain tissue, in which tissue dissection with sparing of blood vessels can be achieved. To prove that this is a useful addition to the neurosurgical armamentarium, reduction of blood loss or postoperative brain edema compared with conventional methods should be demonstrated in future studies.

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Henry W. S. Schroeder, Joachim Oertel and Michael R. Gaab

Object. Epidermoid tumors located in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are challenging lesions because they grow along the subarachnoid spaces around delicate neurovascular structures and often extend into the middle cranial fossa. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of endoscopic assistance in the microsurgical resection of these lesions, in which total removal is the therapy of choice.

Methods. Eight patients harboring an epidermoid tumor of the CPA were treated using an endoscope-assisted microsurgical technique. A retrosigmoid suboccipital approach was used in five patients and a pterional transsylvian approach was chosen in the other three. In four patients the lesion was resected microsurgically and the endoscope was used repeatedly to verify complete tumor removal, whereas most of the tumor mass was removed with the aid of an operating microscope in the other four. Tumor parts extending into other cranial compartments that were not visible through the microscope were removed under endoscopic view by using rigid rod-lens scopes with 30 and 70° angles of view.

All epidermoids were completely evacuated and the membranes were widely resected. Large tumors occupying both the middle and posterior cranial fossa were removed through a single small opening without enlarging the craniotomy. Permanent hearing loss and permanent hypacusis were observed in one patient each. One patient with facial and one with abducent nerve palsy recovered within 6 and 4 months, respectively. A transient weakness of the chewing muscles was encountered in one patient. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed no residual tumor in any patient. To date no recurrences have been observed (follow up range 12–98 months).

Conclusions. The endoscope-assisted microsurgical technique enables safe removal even when tumor parts are not visible in a straight line. Tumor extensions into adjacent cranial compartments can be removed with the same approach without retracting neurovascular structures or enlarging the craniotomy.