Kristin Sjåvik, Jiri Bartek Jr., Lisa Millgård Sagberg, Marte Lødemel Henriksen, Sasha Gulati, Fredrik L. Ståhl, Helena Kristiansson, Ole Solheim, Petter Förander and Asgeir Store Jakola
Surgery for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. The benefit of postoperative passive subdural drainage compared with no drains has been established, but other drainage techniques are common, and their effectiveness compared with passive subdural drains remains unknown.
In Scandinavian population-based cohorts the authors conducted a consecutive, parallel cohort study to compare different drainage techniques. The techniques used were continuous irrigation and drainage (CID cohort, n = 166), passive subdural drainage (PD cohort, n = 330), and active subgaleal drainage (AD cohort, n = 764). The primary end point was recurrence in need of reoperation within 6 months of index surgery. Secondary end points were complications, perioperative mortality, and overall survival. The analyses were based on direct regional comparison (i.e., surgical strategy).
Recurrence in need of surgery was observed in 18 patients (10.8%) in the CID cohort, in 66 patients (20.0%) in the PD cohort, and in 85 patients (11.1%) in the AD cohort (p < 0.001). Complications were more common in the CID cohort (14.5%) compared with the PD (7.3%) and AD (8.1%) cohorts (p = 0.019). Perioperative mortality rates were similar between cohorts (p = 0.621). There were some differences in baseline and treatment characteristics possibly interfering with the above-mentioned results. However, after adjusting for differences in baseline and treatment characteristics in a regression model, the drainage techniques were still significantly associated with clinical outcome (p < 0.001 for recurrence, p = 0.017 for complications).
Compared with the AD cohort, more recurrences were observed in the PD cohort and more complications in the CID cohort, also after adjustment for differences at baseline. Although the authors cannot exclude unmeasured confounding factors when comparing centers, AD appears superior to the more common PD.
Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01930617 (clinicaltrials.gov)
Andreas Fahlström, Henrietta Nittby Redebrandt, Hugo Zeberg, Jiri Bartek Jr., Andreas Bartley, Lovisa Tobieson, Maria Erkki, Amel Hessington, Ebba Troberg, Sadia Mirza, Parmenion P. Tsitsopoulos and Niklas Marklund
The authors aimed to develop the first clinical grading scale for patients with surgically treated spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
A nationwide multicenter study including 401 ICH patients surgically treated by craniotomy and evacuation of a spontaneous supratentorial ICH was conducted between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015. All neurosurgical centers in Sweden were included. All medical records and neuroimaging studies were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality were identified by logistic regression. A risk stratification scale (the Surgical Swedish ICH [SwICH] Score) was developed using weighting of independent predictors based on strength of association.
Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p = 0.00015), ICH volume ≥ 50 mL (p = 0.031), patient age ≥ 75 years (p = 0.0056), prior myocardial infarction (MI) (p = 0.00081), and type 2 diabetes (p = 0.0093). The Surgical SwICH Score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: GCS score 15–13 (0 points), 12–5 (1 point), 4–3 (2 points); age ≥ 75 years (1 point); ICH volume ≥ 50 mL (1 point); type 2 diabetes (1 point); prior MI (1 point). Each increase in the Surgical SwICH Score was associated with a progressively increased 30-day mortality (p = 0.0002). No patient with a Surgical SwICH Score of 0 died, whereas the 30-day mortality rates for patients with Surgical SwICH Scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 5%, 12%, 31%, and 58%, respectively.
The Surgical SwICH Score is a predictor of 30-day mortality in patients treated surgically for spontaneous supratentorial ICH. External validation is needed to assess the predictive value as well as the generalizability of the Surgical SwICH Score.