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Diana Ghinda, Nan Zhang, Junfeng Lu, Cheng-Jun Yao, Shiwen Yuan and Jin-Song Wu

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to assess the clinical efficiency of combined awake craniotomy with 3-T intraoperative MRI (iMRI)–guided resection of gliomas adjacent to eloquent cortex performed at a single center. It also sought to explore the contribution of iMRI to surgeons' learning process of maximal safe resection of gliomas.

METHODS

All patients who underwent an awake craniotomy and iMRI for resection of eloquent area glioma during the 53 months between January 2011 and June 2015 were included. The cases were analyzed for short- and long-term neurological outcome, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and extent of resection (EOR). The learning curve was assessed after dividing the cohort into Group A (first 27 months) and Group B (last 26 months). Statistical analyses included univariate logistic regression analysis on clinical and radiological variables. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used for further analysis of OS and PFS. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS

One hundred six patients were included in the study. Over an average follow-up period of 24.8 months, short- and long-term worsening of the neurological function was noted in 48 (46.2%) and 9 (8.7%) cases, respectively. The median and mean EOR were 100% and 92%, respectively, and complete radiographic resection was achieved in 64 (60.4%) patients. The rate of gross-total resection (GTR) in the patients with low-grade glioma (89.06% ± 19.6%) was significantly lower than that in patients with high-grade glioma (96.4% ± 9.1%) (p = 0.026). Thirty (28.3%) patients underwent further resection after initial iMRI scanning, with a 10.1% increase of the mean EOR. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrated that the final EOR was a significant predictor of PFS (HR 0.225, 95% CI 0.070–0.723, p = 0.012). For patients with high-grade glioma, the GTR (p = 0.033), the presence of short-term motor deficit (p = 0.027), and the WHO grade (p = 0.005) were independent prognostic factors of OS. Performing further resection after the iMRI (p = 0.083) and achieving GTR (p = 0.05) demonstrated a PFS benefit trend for the patients affected by a low-grade glioma. Over time, the rate of performing further resection after an iMRI decreased by 26.1% (p = 0.005). A nonsignificant decrease in the rate of short-term (p = 0.101) and long-term (p = 0.132) neurological deficits was equally noted.

CONCLUSIONS

Combined awake craniotomy and iMRI is a safe and efficient technique allowing maximal safe resection of eloquent area gliomas with possible subsequent OS and PFS benefits. Although there is a learning curve for applying this technique, it can also improve the surgeon's ability in eloquent glioma surgery.

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Jie Zhang, Dong-Xiao Zhuang, Cheng-Jun Yao, Ching-Po Lin, Tian-Liang Wang, Zhi-Yong Qin and Jin-Song Wu

OBJECT

The extent of resection is one of the most essential factors that influence the outcomes of glioma resection. However, conventional structural imaging has failed to accurately delineate glioma margins because of tumor cell infiltration. Three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can provide metabolic information and has been used in preoperative tumor differentiation, grading, and radiotherapy planning. Resection based on glioma metabolism information may provide for a more extensive resection and yield better outcomes for glioma patients. In this study, the authors attempt to integrate 3D 1H-MRS into neuronavigation and assess the feasibility and validity of metabolically based glioma resection.

METHODS

Choline (Cho)–N-acetylaspartate (NAA) index (CNI) maps were calculated and integrated into neuronavigation. The CNI thresholds were quantitatively analyzed and compared with structural MRI studies. Glioma resections were performed under 3D 1H-MRS guidance. Volumetric analyses were performed for metabolic and structural images from a low-grade glioma (LGG) group and high-grade glioma (HGG) group. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurological assessments were performed immediately after surgery and 1 year after tumor resection.

RESULTS

Fifteen eligible patients with primary cerebral gliomas were included in this study. Three-dimensional 1H-MRS maps were successfully coregistered with structural images and integrated into navigational system. Volumetric analyses showed that the differences between the metabolic volumes with different CNI thresholds were statistically significant (p < 0.05). For the LGG group, the differences between the structural and the metabolic volumes with CNI thresholds of 0.5 and 1.5 were statistically significant (p = 0.0005 and 0.0129, respectively). For the HGG group, the differences between the structural and metabolic volumes with CNI thresholds of 0.5 and 1.0 were statistically significant (p = 0.0027 and 0.0497, respectively). All patients showed no tumor progression at the 1-year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

This study integrated 3D MRS maps and intraoperative navigation for glioma margin delineation. Optimum CNI thresholds were applied for both LGGs and HGGs to achieve resection. The results indicated that 3D 1H-MRS can be integrated with structural imaging to provide better outcomes for glioma resection.

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N. U. Farrukh Hameed, Tianming Qiu, Dongxiao Zhuang, Junfeng Lu, Zhengda Yu, Shuai Wu, Bin Wu, Fengping Zhu, Yanyan Song, Hong Chen and Jinsong Wu

OBJECTIVE

Insular lobe gliomas continue to challenge neurosurgeons due to their complex anatomical position. Transcortical and transsylvian corridors remain the primary approaches for reaching the insula, but the adoption of one technique over the other remains controversial. The authors analyzed the transcortical approach of resecting insular gliomas in the context of patient tumor location based on the Berger-Sinai classification, achievable extents of resection (EORs), overall survival (OS), and postsurgical neurological outcome.

METHODS

The authors studied 255 consecutive cases of insular gliomas that underwent transcortical tumor resection in their division. Tumor molecular pathology, location, EOR, postoperative neurological outcome for each insular zone, and the accompanying OS were incorporated into the analysis to determine the value of this surgical approach.

RESULTS

Lower-grade insular gliomas (LGGs) were more prevalent (63.14%). Regarding location, giant tumors (involving all insular zones) were most prevalent (58.82%) followed by zone I+IV (anterior) tumors (20.39%). In LGGs, tumor location was an independent predictor of survival (p = 0.003), with giant tumors demonstrating shortest patient survival (p = 0.003). Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation was more likely to be associated with giant tumors (p < 0.001) than focal tumors located in a regional zone. EOR correlated with survival in both LGG (p = 0.001) and higher-grade glioma (HGG) patients (p = 0.008). The highest EORs were achieved in anterior-zone LGGs (p = 0.024). In terms of developing postoperative neurological deficits, patients with giant tumors were more susceptible (p = 0.038). Postoperative transient neurological deficit was recorded in 12.79%, and permanent deficit in 15.70% of patients. Patients who developed either transient or permanent postsurgical neurological deficits exhibited poorer survival (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The transcortical surgical approach can achieve maximal tumor resection in all insular zones. In addition, the incorporation of adjunct technologies such as multimodal brain imaging and mapping of cortical and subcortical eloquent brain regions into the transcortical approach favors postoperative neurological outcomes, and prolongs patient survival.

Free access

Zhengda Yu, N. U. Farrukh Hameed, Nan Zhang, Bin Wu, Jie Zhang, Junfeng Lu, Tianming Qiu, Dongxiao Zhuang, Hong Chen and Jinsong Wu

Resection of insular tumors in the dominant hemisphere poses a significant risk of postoperative motor and language deficits. The authors present a case in which intraoperative awake mapping and multi-modal imaging was used to help preserve function while resecting a dominant insular glioma. The patient, a 55-year-old man, came to the clinic after experiencing sudden onset of numbness in the right limbs for 4 months. Preoperative MRI revealed a nonenhancing lesion in the left insular lobe. Gross-total tumor resection was achieved through the transcortical approach, and the patient recovered without language or motor deficits. Informed patient consent was obtained.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/gFky09ekmzw.

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Abudumijiti Aibaidula, Wang Zhao, Jin-song Wu, Hong Chen, Zhi-feng Shi, Lu-lu Zheng, Ying Mao, Liang-fu Zhou and Guo-dong Sui

OBJECT

Conventional methods for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) detection, such as DNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry, are time- and labor-consuming and cannot be applied for intraoperative analysis. To develop a new approach for rapid analysis of IDH1 mutation from tiny tumor samples, this study used microfluidics as a method for IDH1 mutation detection.

METHODS

Forty-seven glioma tumor samples were used; IDH1 mutation status was investigated by immunohistochemistry and DNA sequencing. The microfluidic device was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane following standard soft lithography. The immunoanalysis was conducted in the microfluidic chip. Fluorescence images of the on-chip microcolumn taken by the charge-coupled device camera were collected as the analytical results readout. Fluorescence signals were analyzed by NIS-Elements software to gather detailed information about the IDH1 concentration in the tissue samples.

RESULTS

DNA sequencing identified IDH1 R132H mutation in 33 of 47 tumor samples. The fluorescence signal for IDH1-mutant samples was 5.49 ± 1.87 compared with 3.90 ± 1.33 for wild type (p = 0.005). Thus, microfluidics was capable of distinguishing IDH1-mutant tumor samples from wild-type samples. When the cutoff value was 4.11, the sensitivity of microfluidics was 87.9% and the specificity was 64.3%.

CONCLUSIONS

This new approach was capable of analyzing IDH1 mutation status of tiny tissue samples within 30 minutes using intraoperative microsampling. This approach might also be applied for rapid pathological diagnosis of diffuse gliomas, thus guiding personalized resection.