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Fon-Yih Tsuang, Abel Po-Hao Huang, Yi-Hsin Tsai, Jo-Yu Chen, Jing-Er Lee, Yong-Kwang Tu and Kuo-Chuan Wang

Object

Traumatic subdural effusion (TSE) is a common sequela of traumatic brain injury. Surgical intervention is suggested only when TSE exerts mass effect. The authors have found that many patients with TSE exerting mass effect have concomitant hydrocephalus. Patient experiencing this occurrence were studied, and the pathogenesis of this phenomenon was discussed in the context of recent advances in the understanding of CSF circulation.

Methods

During a 2-year period, the authors' institution treated 14 patients with TSE who developed hydrocephalus, after 1 of the patients suffered subdural drainage and other 13 received subdural peritoneal shunt (SPSs). Thirteen of those who had SPSs received programmable ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPSs) for the hydrocephalus. The clinical characteristics as well as the imaging and operative findings of these patients were reviewed.

Results

All patients with symptomatic TSE exerting mass effect received SPSs. All of these patients had a modified Frontal Horn Index of more than 0.33 at presentation, and high opening pressure on durotomy. Following a brief period (4–7 days) of clinical improvement, the condition of all patients deteriorated due to hydrocephalus. Programmable VPSs were inserted with the initial pressure set at approximately 8–10 cm H2O according to opening pressure at ventriculostomy. Shunt valve pressure was gradually decreased to 5–7 cm H2O, according to clinical and radiological follow-up.

Conclusions

Elevated modified Frontal Horn Index in patients with TSE is suggestive of concomitant hydrocephalus. The authors propose that tearing of the dura-arachnoid plane following trauma contributes to TSE and may also impede CSF circulation, causing hydrocephalus. Shunt pressure was adjusted to relative low pressure, indicating the old age of the patients and poor reexpansion of brain parenchyma after the mass effect. Subdural peritoneal shunts and VPSs are indicated in those patients with TSE exerting mass effect with concomitant hydrocephalus.

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Fon-Yih Tsuang, I-Chang Su, Jo-Yu Chen, Jing-Er Lee, Dar-Ming Lai, Yong-Kwang Tu and Kuo-Chuan Wang

Object

The object of this study was to identify the clinical features and outcomes of a subgroup of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who had active contrast extravasation from a ruptured aneurysm during initial cerebral CT angiography (CTA).

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective study of spontaneous SAH cases involving patients treated at their institute. They identified 9 cases in which active contrast extravasation was evident on the initial CT angiogram. Another 12 similar cases were also identified in a literature review and data was gathered from these cases to evaluate the outcomes.

Results

Analysis of all 21 cases revealed that the overall outcomes in cases characterized by active aneurysmal bleeding during CTA were poor. Seventy-six percent of patients had unfavorable results. Patients who showed poor neurological status at presentation died no matter what kind of treatment they received. In contrast, patients who presented with good neurological status initially had a chance of favorable outcome. Among the patients with good initial neurological status, most demonstrated rapid deterioration of their condition during the CTA examination; only those who received immediate and effective decompressive surgery and aneurysm obliteration had good results.

Conclusions

Active aneurysmal rebleeding during CTA is an uncommon but devastating event. Though the mortality of this distinct group of patients remains high, a clinical subgroup may benefit from immediate surgery. Patients with good initial neurological status who show rapid neurological deterioration may still have a favorable outcome if they undergo timely and successful decompressive surgery and proper aneurysm obliteration. Patients who present with poor neurological status do badly, and there is no effective treatment for such patients.

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I-Chang Su, Chi-Cheng Yang, Wei-Han Wang, Jing-Er Lee, Yong-Kwang Tu and Kuo-Chuan Wang

The authors present a rare case of an infarction complication 15 days following acute intraventricular bleeding due to moyamoya disease. Before the infarction occurred, perfusion CT imaging disclosed early but reversible ischemic injury on the day of hemorrhage. Dehydration and hypotension are both possibly contributing factors of progressive injury from reversible ischemia due to infarction. Although the patient underwent successful bypass surgery, 1 month after the ictus the neurobehavior evaluation still showed marked executive dysfunction. The authors address that, in hemorrhagic-type moyamoya disease, early perfusion CT scanning is not only a powerful tool to identify the high-risk group of patients who could experience subacute infarction, but also alarms neurosurgeons to eliminate any predisposing factors when it shows reversible ischemic injuries.

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Huan-Chih Wang, Jui-Chang Tsai, Jing-Er Lee, Sheng-Jean Huang, Abel Po-Hao Huang, Wei-Chou Lin, Sung-Tsang Hsieh and Kuo-Chuan Wang

OBJECTIVE

Direct brain compression and secondary injury due to increased intracranial pressure are believed to be the pathognomic causes of a grave outcome in acute subdural hemorrhage (aSDH). However, ischemic damage from aSDH has received limited attention. The authors hypothesized that cerebral microcirculation is altered after aSDH. Direct visualization of microcirculation was conducted in a novel rat model.

METHODS

A craniectomy was performed on each of the 18 experimental adult Wistar rats, followed by superfusion of autologous arterial blood onto the cortical surface. Changes in microcirculation were recorded by capillary videoscopy. Blood flow and the partial pressure of oxygen in the brain tissue (PbtO2) were measured at various depths from the cortex. The brain was then sectioned for pathological examination. The effects of aspirin pretreatment were also examined.

RESULTS

Instantaneous vasospasm of small cortical arteries after aSDH was observed; thrombosis also developed 120 minutes after aSDH. Reductions in blood flow and PbtO2 were found at depths of 2–4 mm. Blood-brain barrier disruption and thrombi formation were confirmed using immunohistochemical staining, while aspirin pretreatment reduced thrombosis and the impairment of microcirculation.

CONCLUSIONS

Microcirculation impairment was demonstrated in this aSDH model. Aspirin pretreatment prevented the diffuse thrombosis of cortical and subcortical vessels after aSDH.

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Kuo-Chuan Wang, Sung-Chun Tang, Jing-Er Lee, Dar-Ming Lai, Sheng-Jean Huang, Sung-Tsang Hsieh, Jiann-Shing Jeng and Yong-Kwang Tu

Object

Experimental studies have demonstrated the crucial role of posthemorrhagic erythrocyte catabolism in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors of this study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of a series of CSF biomarkers linked to heme metabolism in SAH patients.

Methods

Patients with Fisher Grade III aneurysmal SAH undergoing early aneurysm obliteration were enrolled. The levels of heme oxygenase–1 (HO-1), oxyhemoglobin, ferritin, and bilirubin in intrathecal CSF were measured on the 7th day posthemorrhage. The associations of functional outcome with clinical and CSF parameters were analyzed.

Results

The study included 41 patients (mean age 59 ± 14 years; 16 male, 25 female), 17 (41.5%) of whom had an unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤ 3) 3 months after SAH. In terms of the clinical data, age > 60 years, admission World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade ≥ III, and the presence of acute hydrocephalus were independent factors associated with an unfavorable outcome. After adjusting for clinical parameters, a higher level of HO-1 appeared to be the most significant CSF parameter related to an unfavorable outcome among all tested CSF molecules (OR 0.934, 95% CI 0.883–0.989, p = 0.018). Further analysis using a generalized additive model identified a cutoff HO-1 value of 81.2 μM, with higher values predicting unfavorable outcome (82.4% accuracy).

Conclusions

The authors propose that the level of intrathecal CSF HO-1 at Day 7 post-SAH can be an effective outcome indicator in patients with Fisher Grade III aneurysmal SAH.