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Yong Xia, Yan Ju, Jing Chen, and Chao You

OBJECT

The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, existing problems, and treatment experiences in recently diagnosed cerebral paragonimiasis (CP) cases and sought to raise awareness of CP and to supply reference data for early diagnosis and treatment.

METHODS

Twenty-seven patients (22 male and 5 female; median age 20.3 years, range 4–47 years) with CP were diagnosed between September 2008 and September 2013. These diagnoses were confirmed by IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Follow-up was performed in 24 cases for a period of 6–56 months.

RESULTS

Cerebral paragonimiasis accounted for 21.6% of paragonimiasis cases (27 of 125). The average duration from onset to praziquantel treatment was 69 days. All patients resided in rural areas. Twenty patients had positive lung results, which included visible lung lesions in 14 cases. The lesions were surgically removed in 8 of these cases. Twenty-four patients had high eosinophil counts (≥ 0.08 × 109/L), and eosinophilic meningitis was noted in 17 cases. The rate of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis was 30.4%. Most symptoms were markedly improved after treatment, but mild movement disorders combined with impaired memory and personality changes remained in a small number of patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of CP in young patients (4–16 years) with the primary symptoms of epilepsy and hemorrhage. Early diagnosis and timely treatment can reduce the need for surgery and further impairments to brain function. Liquid-based cytological examination of CSF and peripheral blood eosinophil counts can aid in differentiating CP from similar lesions.

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Wei Pan, Jia-li Zhao, Jin Xu, Ming Zhang, Tao Fang, Jing Yan, Xin-hong Wang, and Quan Zhou

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to compare the preoperative radiographic features of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) with and without local coronal imbalance (LCI) and to investigate the surgical outcomes of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in the treatment of DLS with LCI at the spondylolisthesis level. DLS with scoliotic disc wedging and/or lateral listhesis at the same involved segment, as well as LCI, constitutes a distinct subgroup. However, previous studies concerning surgical outcomes focused mainly on sagittal profiles. There is a paucity of valid data regarding lumbar coronal alignment and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after surgery in DLS with LCI.

METHODS

The authors reviewed consecutive patients who received TLIF for L4/5 DLS between 2009 and 2018. Patients were assigned to the LCI and non-LCI groups based on preoperative radiographs. Demographics, radiographic parameters related to both sagittal and coronal alignment, and PROs were compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

There were 21 patients in the LCI and 80 in the non-LCI group. Compared with the non-LCI group, the LCI group was characterized by lower preoperative lumbar lordosis on sagittal alignment (38.3° vs 43.7°, p < 0.05), higher lumbar Cobb angle on coronal alignment (12.4° vs 5.1°, p < 0.05), and worse lumbar coronal balance (18.5 mm vs 6.8 mm, p < 0.05). After surgery, lumbar alignment in the sagittal and coronal planes was significantly improved in the LCI group, whereas no significant changes occurred in the non-LCI group. Scores on the preoperative Oswestry Disability Index and the visual analog scale for back pain and leg pain scores were significantly higher in the LCI group, whereas no differences were found between the 2 groups in the postoperative evaluation (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

DLS with LCI constitutes a distinct subgroup characterized by coronal malalignment and loss of whole lumbar lordosis, which may result in worse PROs. The TLIF procedure allows the reconstruction of the coronal and sagittal lumbar profile and achievement of satisfactory PROs.

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Yan Qu, Jing Chen-Roetling, Luna Benvenisti-Zarom, and Raymond F. Regan

Object

Experimental evidence suggests that hemoglobin degradation products contribute to cellular injury after intracerebal hemorrhage (ICH). Hemoglobin breakdown is catalyzed in part by the heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that HO-2 gene deletion is cytoprotective in an experimental ICH model.

Methods

After anesthesia was induced with isoflurane, 3- to 6-month-old HO-2 knockout and wild-type mice were stereotactically injected with 15 μl autologous blood and a group of control mice were injected with an equal volume of sterile saline. Striatal protein and lipid oxidation were quantified 72 hours later using carbonyl and malondialdehyde assays. Cell viability was determined by performing a 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Following blood injection, the investigators found a 3.4-fold increase in protein carbonylation compared with that in the contralateral striatum in wild-type mice; in knockout mice, the investigators found a twofold increase. The mean malondialdehyde concentration in injected striata was increased twofold in wild-type mice at this time, compared with 1.5-fold in knockout mice. Cell viability, as determined by MTT reduction, was reduced in injected striata to 38 ± 4% of that in the contralateral striata in wild-type mice, compared with 66 ± 5% in HO-2 knockout mice. Baseline striatal HO-1 protein expression was similar in wild-type and HO-2 knockout mice, but was induced more rapidly in the former after blood injection.

Conclusions

Deletion of HO-2 attenuates oxidative cell injury after whole-blood injection into the mouse striatum. Therapies that specifically target HO-2 may improve outcome after ICH.

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Jun Yan, Jing Wen, Roodrajeetsing Gopaul, Chao-Yuan Zhang, and Shao-wen Xiao

OBJECT

There have been many multidisciplinary approaches to the treatment of vein of Galen malformations. Endovascular embolization is the first option for treatment. However, the effects of the treatment remain controversial. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular embolization to treat patients with vein of Galen malformations.

METHODS

This paper includes a retrospective analysis of a sample of 667 patients who underwent endovascular embolization to treat vein of Galen malformations. The data were obtained through a literature search of PubMed databases. The authors also evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment. Mortality within the follow-up period is analyzed. Pooled estimates of proportions with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated using raw (i.e., untransformed) proportions (PRAW).

RESULTS

In the 34 studies evaluated, neonates accounted for 44% of the sample (95% CI 31%-57%; I2 = 92.5%), infants accounted for 41% (95% CI 30%–51%; I2 = 83.3%), and children and adults accounted for 12% (95% CI 7%–16%; I2 = 52.9%). The meta-analysis revealed that complete occlusion was performed in 57% (95% CI 48%–65%; I2 = 68.2%) of cases, with partial occlusion in 43% (95% CI 34%–51%; I2 = 70.7%). The pooled proportion of patients showing a good outcome was 68% (95% CI 61%–76%; I2 = 77.8%), while 31% showed a poor outcome (95% CI 24%–38%; I2 = 75.6%). The proportional meta-analysis showed that postembolization mortality and complications were reported in 10% (95% CI 8%–12%; I2 = 42.8%) and 37% (95% CI 29%–45%; I2 = 79.1%), respectively. Complications included cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral ischemia, hydrocephalus, leg ischemia, and vessel perforation.

CONCLUSIONS

The successful treatment of vein of Galen malformations remains a complex therapeutic challenge. The authors’ analysis of clinical history and research literature suggests that vein of Galen malformations treated with endovascular embolization can result in an acceptable mortality rate, complications, and good clinical outcome. Future large-scale, multicenter, randomized trials are necessary to confirm these findings.

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Yuan Wang, Bolin Liu, Tianzhi Zhao, Binfang Zhao, Daihua Yu, Xue Jiang, Lin Ye, Lanfu Zhao, Wenhai Lv, Yufu Zhang, Tao Zheng, Yafei Xue, Lei Chen, Eric Sankey, Long Chen, Yingxi Wu, Mingjuan Li, Lin Ma, Zhengmin Li, Ruigang Li, Juan Li, Jing Yan, Shasha Wang, Hui Zhao, Xude Sun, Guodong Gao, Yan Qu, and Shiming He

OBJECTIVE

Although enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs have gained acceptance in various surgical specialties, no established neurosurgical ERAS protocol for patients undergoing elective craniotomy has been reported in the literature. Here, the authors describe the design, implementation, safety, and efficacy of a novel neurosurgical ERAS protocol for elective craniotomy in a tertiary care medical center located in China.

METHODS

A multidisciplinary neurosurgical ERAS protocol for elective craniotomy was developed based on the best available evidence. A total of 140 patients undergoing elective craniotomy between October 2016 and May 2017 were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing this novel protocol to conventional neurosurgical perioperative management. The primary endpoint of this study was the postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS). Postoperative morbidity, perioperative complications, postoperative pain scores, postoperative nausea and vomiting, duration of urinary catheterization, time to first solid meal, and patient satisfaction were secondary endpoints.

RESULTS

The median postoperative hospital LOS (4 days) was significantly shorter with the incorporation of the ERAS protocol than that with conventional perioperative management (7 days, p < 0.0001). No 30-day readmission or reoperation occurred in either group. More patients in the ERAS group reported mild pain (visual analog scale score 1–3) on postoperative day 1 than those in the control group (79% vs. 33%, OR 7.49, 95% CI 3.51–15.99, p < 0.0001). Similarly, more patients in the ERAS group had a shortened duration of pain (1–2 days; 53% vs. 17%, OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.29–1.37, p = 0.0001). The urinary catheter was removed within 6 hours after surgery in 74% patients in the ERAS group (OR 400.1, 95% CI 23.56–6796, p < 0.0001). The time to first oral liquid intake was a median of 8 hours in the ERAS group compared to 11 hours in the control group (p < 0.0001), and solid food intake occurred at a median of 24 hours in the ERAS group compared to 72 hours in the control group (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

This multidisciplinary, evidence-based, neurosurgical ERAS protocol for elective craniotomy appears to have significant benefits over conventional perioperative management. Implementation of ERAS is associated with a significant reduction in the postoperative hospital stay and an acceleration in recovery, without increasing complication rates related to elective craniotomy. Further evaluation of this protocol in large multicenter studies is warranted.

Clinical trial registration no.: ChiCTR-INR-16009662 (chictr.org.cn)