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Eui Hyun Kim, Jihwan Yoo, In-Ho Jung, Ji Woong Oh, Ju-Seong Kim, Jin Sook Yoon, Ju Hyung Moon, Seok-Gu Kang, Jong Hee Chang, and Tae Hoon Roh

OBJECTIVE

The insula is a complex anatomical structure. Accessing tumors in the insula remains a challenge due to its anatomical complexity and the high chance of morbidity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an endoscopic transorbital approach (ETOA) to the insular region based on a cadaveric study.

METHODS

One cadaveric head was used to study the anatomy of the insula and surrounding vessels. Then, anatomical dissection was performed in 4 human cadaveric heads using a dedicated endoscopic system with the aid of neuronavigation guidance. To assess the extent of resection, CT scanning was performed before and after dissection. The insular region was directly exposed by a classic transcranial approach to check the extent of resection from the side with a classic transcranial approach.

RESULTS

The entire procedure consisted of two phases: an extradural orbital phase and an intradural sylvian phase. After eyelid incision, the sphenoid bone and orbital roof were extensively drilled out with exposure of the frontal and temporal dural layers. After making a dural window, the anterior ramus of the sylvian fissure was opened and dissected. The M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was identified and traced posterolaterally. A small corticectomy was performed on the posterior orbital gyrus. Through the window between the lateral lenticulostriate arteries and M2, the cortex and medulla of the insula were resected in an anteroposterior direction without violation of the M2 segment of the MCA or its major branches. When confirmed by pterional craniotomy, the sylvian fissure and the MCA were found to be anatomically preserved. After validation of the feasibility and safety based on a cadaveric study, the ETOA was successfully performed in a patient with a high-grade glioma (WHO grade III) in the right insula.

CONCLUSIONS

The transorbital route can be considered a potential option to access tumors located in the insula. Using an ETOA, the MCA and its major branches were identified and preserved while removal was performed along the long axis of the insula. In particular, lesions in the anterior part of the insula are most benefited by this approach. Because this approach was implemented in only one patient, additional discussion and further verification is required.

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Soo Heon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Minkyun Na, Jihwan Yoo, Woohyun Kim, In-Ho Jung, Kyung Won Kim, Ju Hyung Moon, Daham Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sun Ho Kim, and Eui Hyun Kim

OBJECTIVE

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)–secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare type of pituitary adenoma; thus, little is known about TSHomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of TSHomas based on a single-center experience. The authors also searched for reliable preoperative and early postoperative factors that could predict long-term endocrinological remission.

METHODS

The clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics and surgical and endocrinological outcomes of 31 consecutive cases of TSHomas that were surgically treated between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative factors were evaluated for their ability to predict long-term remission by comparing remission and nonremission groups. TSH and free thyroxine levels were measured at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after surgery to determine whether they could predict long-term remission.

RESULTS

Gross-total removal of tumor was achieved in 28 patients (90.3%), and 26 patients (83.9%) achieved endocrinological remission by surgery alone based on long-term endocrinological follow-up (median 50 months, range 32–81 months). The majority of the tumors were solid (21/31, 67.7%), and en bloc resection was possible in 16 patients (51.6%). Larger tumor size and tumor invasion into cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus were strong predictors of lower rates of endocrinological remission. Immediate postoperative TSH level at 12 hours after surgery was the strongest predictor, with a 0.62 μIU/mL cutoff. Postoperative complications included CSF rhinorrhea in one patient and epistaxis in another patient, who underwent additional surgical treatment for the complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor size and extent are major prognostic factors for both extent of resection and endocrinological remission. The consistency of TSHomas was more likely to be solid, which makes extracapsular dissection more feasible. Long-term remission of TSHomas could be predicted even during the early postoperative period.

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Soo Heon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Minkyun Na, Jihwan Yoo, Woohyun Kim, In-Ho Jung, Kyung Won Kim, Ju Hyung Moon, Daham Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sun Ho Kim, and Eui Hyun Kim

OBJECTIVE

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)–secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare type of pituitary adenoma; thus, little is known about TSHomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of TSHomas based on a single-center experience. The authors also searched for reliable preoperative and early postoperative factors that could predict long-term endocrinological remission.

METHODS

The clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics and surgical and endocrinological outcomes of 31 consecutive cases of TSHomas that were surgically treated between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative factors were evaluated for their ability to predict long-term remission by comparing remission and nonremission groups. TSH and free thyroxine levels were measured at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after surgery to determine whether they could predict long-term remission.

RESULTS

Gross-total removal of tumor was achieved in 28 patients (90.3%), and 26 patients (83.9%) achieved endocrinological remission by surgery alone based on long-term endocrinological follow-up (median 50 months, range 32–81 months). The majority of the tumors were solid (21/31, 67.7%), and en bloc resection was possible in 16 patients (51.6%). Larger tumor size and tumor invasion into cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus were strong predictors of lower rates of endocrinological remission. Immediate postoperative TSH level at 12 hours after surgery was the strongest predictor, with a 0.62 μIU/mL cutoff. Postoperative complications included CSF rhinorrhea in one patient and epistaxis in another patient, who underwent additional surgical treatment for the complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor size and extent are major prognostic factors for both extent of resection and endocrinological remission. The consistency of TSHomas was more likely to be solid, which makes extracapsular dissection more feasible. Long-term remission of TSHomas could be predicted even during the early postoperative period.