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Jie Wu, ChengBing Pan, ShenHao Xie, Bin Tang, Jun Fu, Xiao Wu, ZhiGao Tong, BoWen Wu, YouQing Yang, Han Ding, ShaoYang Li, and Tao Hong

OBJECTIVE

When comparing endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) and transcranial microsurgery (TCM) for adult and mixed-age population craniopharyngiomas, EES has become an alternative to TCM. To date, studies comparing EES and TCM for pediatric craniopharyngiomas are sparse. In this study, the authors aimed to compare postoperative complications and surgical outcomes between EES and TCM for pediatric craniopharyngiomas.

METHODS

The data of pediatric patients with craniopharyngiomas who underwent surgery between February 2009 and June 2021 at a single center were retrospectively reviewed. All included cases were divided into EES and TCM groups according to the treatment modality received. The baseline characteristics of patients were compared between the groups, as well as surgical results, perioperative complications, and long-term outcomes. To control for confounding factors, propensity-adjusted analysis was performed.

RESULTS

Overall, 51 pediatric craniopharyngioma surgeries were identified in 49 patients, among which 35 were treated with EES and 16 were treated with TCM. The proportion of gross-total resection (GTR) was similar between the groups (94.3% for EES vs 75% for TCM, p = 0.130). TCM was associated with a lower rate of hypogonadism (33.3% vs 64.7%, p = 0.042) and a higher rate of growth hormone deficiency (73.3% vs 26.5%, p = 0.002), permanent diabetes insipidus (DI) (60.0% vs 29.4%, p = 0.043), and panhypopituitarism (80.0% vs 47.1%, p = 0.032) at the last follow-up. CSF leakage only occurred in the EES group, with no significant difference observed between the groups (p > 0.99). TCM significantly increased the risk of worsened visual outcomes (25.0% vs 0.0%, p = 0.012). However, TCM was associated with a significantly longer median duration of follow-up (66.0 vs 40.5 months, p = 0.007) and a significantly lower rate of preoperative hypogonadism (18.8% vs 60.0%, p = 0.006). The propensity-adjusted analysis revealed no difference in the rate of recurrence, hypogonadism, or permanent DI. Additionally, EES was associated with a lower median gain in BMI (1.5 kg/m2 vs 7.5 kg/m2, p = 0.046) and better hypothalamic function (58.3% vs 8.3%, p = 0.027) at the last follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with TCM, EES was associated with a superior visual outcome, better endocrinological and hypothalamic function, and less BMI gain, but comparable rates of GTR, recurrence, and perioperative complications. These findings have indicated that EES is a safe and effective surgical modality and can be a viable alternative to TCM for pediatric midline craniopharyngiomas.

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Zhi-Jie Zhou, Feng-Dong Zhao, Xiang-Qian Fang, Xing Zhao, and Shun-Wu Fan

Object

The authors compared the effectiveness of instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (iPLIF) and instrumented posterolateral fusion (iPLF) for the treatment of low-back pain (LBP) due to degenerative lumbar disease.

Methods

Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative observational studies through December 2009 were identified using a retrieval strategy of sensitive and specific searches. The study design, participant characteristics, interventions, follow-up rate and period, and outcomes were abstracted after the assessment of methodological quality of the trials. Analyses were performed following the method guidelines of the Cochrane Back Review Group.

Results

Nine studies were identified—3 RCTs and 6 comparative observational studies. No significant difference was found between the 2 fusion procedures in the global assessment of clinical outcome (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.71–3.22, p = 0.29) and complication rate (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.16–1.86, p = 0.34). Both techniques were effective in reducing pain and improving functional disability, as well as restoring intervertebral disc height. Instrumented PLIF was more effective in achieving solid fusion (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.35–5.00, p = 0.004), a lower reoperation rate (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.03–1.29, p = 0.09), and better restoration of segmental angle and lumbar lordotic angle than iPLF. There were no significant differences between the fusion methods regarding blood loss (weighted mean difference –179.63, 95% CI –516.42 to 157.15, p = 0.30), and operating time (weighted mean difference 8.03, 95% CI –45.46 to 61.53, p = 0.77).

Conclusions

The authors' analysis provided moderate-quality evidence that iPLIF has the advantages of higher fusion rate and better restoration of spinal alignment over iPLF. No significant differences were identified between iPLIF and iPLF concerning clinical outcome, complication rate, operating time, and blood loss.

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Matthew J. Shepard, Alejandro Bugarini, Nancy A. Edwards, Jie Lu, Qi Zhang, Tianxia Wu, Zhengping Zhuang, and Prashant Chittiboina

OBJECTIVE

Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by CNS hemangioblastomas (HBs) and clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) due to hypoxia-inducible factor activation (pseudohypoxia). Because of the lack of effective medical therapies for VHL, HBs and RCCs account for significant morbidity and mortality, ultimately necessitating numerous neurological and renal surgeries. Propranolol is an FDA-approved pan-beta adrenergic antagonist with antitumor effects against infantile hemangiomas (IHs) and possibly VHL HBs. Here, the authors investigated the antitumor efficacy of propranolol against pseudohypoxia-driven VHL-HBs and VHL-RCCs.

METHODS

Patient-derived VHL-associated HBs (VHL-HBs) or 786-O-VHL −/− RCC cells were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of propranolol in vitro and assessed with viability assays, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting. In vivo confirmation of propranolol antitumor activity was confirmed in athymic nude mice bearing 786-O xenograft tumors. Lastly, patients enrolled in a VHL natural history study (NCT00005902) were analyzed for incidental propranolol intake. Propranolol activity against VHL-HBs was assessed retrospectively with volumetric HB growth kinetic analysis.

RESULTS

Propranolol decreased HB and RCC viability in vitro with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 50 µM and 200 µM, respectively. Similar to prior reports in infantile hemangiomas, propranolol induced apoptosis and paradoxically increased VEGF-A mRNA expression in patient-derived VHL-HBs and 786-O cells. While intracellular VEGF protein levels were not affected by propranolol treatment, propranolol decreased HIF expression in 786-O cells (7.6-fold reduction, p < 0.005). Propranolol attenuated tumor progression compared with control (33% volume reduction at 7 days, p < 0.005) in 786-O xenografted tumor-bearing mice. Three patients (harboring 25 growing CNS HBs) started propranolol therapy during the longitudinal VHL-HB study. HBs in these patients tended to grow slower (median growth rate 27.1 mm3/year vs 13.3 mm3/year) during propranolol treatment (p < 0.0004).

CONCLUSIONS

Propranolol decreases VHL-HB and VHL-related RCC viability in vitro likely by modulation of VEGF expression and by inducing apoptosis. Propranolol abrogates 786-O xenograft tumor progression in vivo, and retrospective clinical data suggest that propranolol curtails HB growth. These results suggest that propranolol may play a role in the treatment of VHL-related tumors.

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Xinru Xiao, Zhen Wu, Liwei Zhang, Guijun Jia, Jie Tang, Guolu Meng, and Junting Zhang

Object

In this paper the authors describe a modified far-lateral transcondylar approach to remove hypoglossal neurilemmomas (HGNs).

Methods

Between September 2008 and June 2011, 11 consecutive patients with HGNs underwent tumor removal via a modified far-lateral transcondylar approach. The average age at presentation, tumor characteristics, cranial nerve (CN) deficits, and outcomes were assessed. The modified far-lateral transcondylar approach comprises several important steps. The first step is to remove the limited posterior aspect of the condylar facet to open the hypoglossal canal. The second step is to expose the posterior arch and the transverse process of C-1. A fat layer covers the venous plexus of the vertebral artery, and careful dissection along this surface of the fat layer is important to protect the vertebral artery from damage. The neck muscles are dissected caudally to expose the extracranial component of the tumor, which is located in front of the transverse process of C-1.

Results

Eleven cases of HGNs were treated during the study period. The mean patient age was 47.4 ± 8.9 years (range 31–59 years); there were 3 men and 8 women. The mean follow-up period was 14.1 ± 9 months. All patients presented with hypoglossal nerve deficits; other commonly observed deficits included glossopharyngeal and vestibular/cochlear nerve deficits. Gross-total resection of the tumor was achieved in 10 patients. A subtotal resection of the tumor was achieved in the remaining patient. Two patients had transient postoperative facial nerve palsies, 1 patient developed a new CN XI palsy postoperatively, and 5 patients experienced transient hoarseness and difficulty swallowing. Two patients required a tracheotomy because they demonstrated dysfunction of the caudal CNs and subsequently developed postoperative pneumonia. Postoperatively, 5 patients required the temporary placement of a nasogastric feeding tube. There were no surgery-related deaths in this series.

Conclusions

The modified far-lateral transcondylar approach is an effective treatment for HGNs, yielding a high total tumor removal rate with an acceptable rate of morbidity.

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Jie Zhang, Dong-Xiao Zhuang, Cheng-Jun Yao, Ching-Po Lin, Tian-Liang Wang, Zhi-Yong Qin, and Jin-Song Wu

OBJECT

The extent of resection is one of the most essential factors that influence the outcomes of glioma resection. However, conventional structural imaging has failed to accurately delineate glioma margins because of tumor cell infiltration. Three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can provide metabolic information and has been used in preoperative tumor differentiation, grading, and radiotherapy planning. Resection based on glioma metabolism information may provide for a more extensive resection and yield better outcomes for glioma patients. In this study, the authors attempt to integrate 3D 1H-MRS into neuronavigation and assess the feasibility and validity of metabolically based glioma resection.

METHODS

Choline (Cho)–N-acetylaspartate (NAA) index (CNI) maps were calculated and integrated into neuronavigation. The CNI thresholds were quantitatively analyzed and compared with structural MRI studies. Glioma resections were performed under 3D 1H-MRS guidance. Volumetric analyses were performed for metabolic and structural images from a low-grade glioma (LGG) group and high-grade glioma (HGG) group. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurological assessments were performed immediately after surgery and 1 year after tumor resection.

RESULTS

Fifteen eligible patients with primary cerebral gliomas were included in this study. Three-dimensional 1H-MRS maps were successfully coregistered with structural images and integrated into navigational system. Volumetric analyses showed that the differences between the metabolic volumes with different CNI thresholds were statistically significant (p < 0.05). For the LGG group, the differences between the structural and the metabolic volumes with CNI thresholds of 0.5 and 1.5 were statistically significant (p = 0.0005 and 0.0129, respectively). For the HGG group, the differences between the structural and metabolic volumes with CNI thresholds of 0.5 and 1.0 were statistically significant (p = 0.0027 and 0.0497, respectively). All patients showed no tumor progression at the 1-year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

This study integrated 3D MRS maps and intraoperative navigation for glioma margin delineation. Optimum CNI thresholds were applied for both LGGs and HGGs to achieve resection. The results indicated that 3D 1H-MRS can be integrated with structural imaging to provide better outcomes for glioma resection.

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Timothy Ryken and Vincent C. Traynelis

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Feng-Tao Liu, Li-Qin Lang, Ren-Yuan Zhou, Rui Feng, Jie Hu, Jian Wang, and Jian-Jun Wu

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), dystonia, and other movement disorders. In contrast to the strong positive effects that have been documented for motor symptoms, the effects of DBS on nonmotor symptoms have not been fully elucidated. Some reports suggest that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus may improve lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with PD; however, reports of the effects of globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS on urinary symptoms are limited. The authors present the case of a 49-year-old woman with PD who developed severe urinary incontinence after 27 months of GPi DBS. The urinary incontinence disappeared when stimulation was turned off, and reemerged after it was turned on again. After activation of a more dorsal contact in the left electrode, the patient’s urinary dynamics returned to normal.

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Jing-Jie Zheng, Gui-Jun Zhang, Xu-Lei Huo, Liang Wang, Shu-Yu Hao, Li-Wei Zhang, Zhen Wu, Yu-Mei Wu, Jun-Ting Zhang, and Da Li

OBJECTIVE

Primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma (PIRMS) is rare, and the effects of the treatment strategy on overall survival (OS) are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors pertinent to OS and to propose an optimal treatment strategy.

METHODS

Clinical data of patients with PIRMS treated at Beijing Tiantan Hospital and from the English-language literature between 1946 and 2018 were reviewed. A literature review was performed via Ovid, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases using the terms “rhabdomyosarcoma,” “intracranial,” “cerebral,” and “brain.” Previously published data were processed and used according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines.

RESULTS

There were 8 males (66.7%) and 4 females with PIRMS at our institution, with a mean age of 24.3 years. Gross-total resection was achieved in 4 patients (33.3%), and adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy were administered in 5 (45.5%) and 3 (27.3%) patients, respectively. After a mean follow-up period of 13.7 months, all patients developed local-regional recurrence and died of the disease. Twenty-nine cases (14 female and 15 male) were reported in the literature with a median age of 9.0 years. After a mean follow-up duration of 18.6 months, 13 patients (44.8%) developed recurrences, 7 patients (24.1%) had extracranial metastasis, and 14 patients (48.3%) died. In the pooled cases, adjuvant radiation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.089, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.027–0.288, p < 0.001) and age < 10 years (HR 0.227, 95% CI 0.077–0.666, p = 0.007) were independent predictors of good local-regional progression-free survival (LR-PFS). Adjuvant radiation therapy (HR 0.301, 95% CI 0.110–0.828, p = 0.020) and age < 10 years (HR 0.359, 95% CI 0.131–0.983, p = 0.046) were significant predictors for favorable OS in the multivariate model.

CONCLUSIONS

Due to the rarity of the disease, a poor outcome of PIRMS was demonstrated based on the pooled cohort. Use of radiation was associated with improved outcomes and should be considered to improve OS/LR-PFS. Further study is required to identify the optimal treatment regimen.

Systematic review no.: CRD42019121249 (crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/)

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Vin-Cent Wu, Tao-Min Huang, Chih-Chung Shiao, Chun-Fu Lai, Pi-Ru Tsai, Wei-Jie Wang, Hui-Yu Huang, Kuo-Chuan Wang, Wen-Je Ko, Kwan-Dun Wu, and NSARF Group

Object

Hemodynamic instability occurs frequently during dialysis treatment and remains a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with brain hemorrhage. This study aims to compare the effects of hemodynamic parameters and intracranial pressure (ICP) between sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) in dialysis patients with brain hemorrhage.

Methods

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with brain hemorrhage undergoing ICP monitoring were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive CVVH or SLED on the 1st day and were changed to the other modality on the 2nd day. The ultrafiltration rate was set at between 1.0 kg/8 hrs and 1.5 kg/8 hrs according to the patient's fluid status. The primary study end point was the change in hemodynamics and ICP during the dialytic periods. The secondary end point was the difference between cardiovascular peptides and oxidative and inflammatory assays.

Results

Ten patients (6 women; mean age 59.9 ± 3.6 years) were analyzed. The stroke volume variation was higher with SLED than CVVH (generalized estimating equations method, p = 0.031). The ICP level increased after both SLED and CVVH (time effect, p = 0.003) without significant difference between modalities. The dialysis dose quantification after 8-hour dialysis was higher in SLED than CVVH (equivalent urea clearance by convection, 62.7 ± 4.4 vs 50.2 ± 3.9 ml/min; p = 0.002). Additionally, the endothelin-1 level increased after CVVH treatment (p = 0.019) but not SLED therapy.

Conclusions

With this controlled crossover study, the authors provide the pilot evidence that both SLED and CVVH display identical acute hemodynamic effects and increased ICP after dialysis in brain hemorrhage patients. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01781585 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

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Zhengda Yu, N. U. Farrukh Hameed, Nan Zhang, Bin Wu, Jie Zhang, Junfeng Lu, Tianming Qiu, Dongxiao Zhuang, Hong Chen, and Jinsong Wu

Resection of insular tumors in the dominant hemisphere poses a significant risk of postoperative motor and language deficits. The authors present a case in which intraoperative awake mapping and multi-modal imaging was used to help preserve function while resecting a dominant insular glioma. The patient, a 55-year-old man, came to the clinic after experiencing sudden onset of numbness in the right limbs for 4 months. Preoperative MRI revealed a nonenhancing lesion in the left insular lobe. Gross-total tumor resection was achieved through the transcortical approach, and the patient recovered without language or motor deficits. Informed patient consent was obtained.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/gFky09ekmzw.