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Christopher R. Pasarikovski, Jerry C. Ku, Julia Keith, Joel Ramjist, Yuta Dobashi, Stefano M. Priola, Leodante da Costa, Ashish Kumar, and Victor X. D. Yang

OBJECTIVE

Although the majority of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) will improve with anticoagulation therapy, a portion of patients will either present in a comatose state or continue to deteriorate clinically despite early anticoagulation. In these cases, along with treating the underlying thrombophilia, timely thrombolysis may be beneficial. Repurposed arterial thrombectomy devices may not perform as expected in the cerebral venous sinus, and there are currently no preclinical endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) models for CVST. Contrary to arterial stroke research, preclinical models utilized to test various endovascular techniques and devices are lacking. The purpose of this research was to develop a reliable preclinical animal model for the testing of endovascular strategies to treat CVST.

METHODS

Five consecutive male Yorkshire swine weighing 45 kg were utilized. Thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus was induced with a bovine thrombin injection via a microcatheter under distal balloon occlusion for 15 minutes. Combined arterial injections and superselective sinus injections confirmed the extent of thrombosis. EVT was subsequently performed using a second-generation stent retriever, followed by intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assess the luminal environment after thrombectomy.

RESULTS

Thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, EVT, and subsequent OCT imaging were technically successful in 4 of the 5 swine. Recanalization of the sinus with a second-generation stent retriever was successful after one attempt in 3 of 4 swine (75%), and 1 swine required two attempts. OCT imaging after thrombectomy revealed regions of residual sinus luminal thrombus despite complete angiographic recanalization. Thrombosed bridging cortical veins were also observed before draining into the sinus, along with patent cortical veins.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors describe a preclinical model to assess endovascular techniques and devices for the treatment of CVST. Repurposed devices from arterial stroke may not perform as expected, given the unique features of venous sinus thrombosis. Residual bridging cortical vein thrombus and residual sinus thrombus, visualized on intravascular OCT, may be present despite complete sinus recanalization on angiography, and this may be the etiology of the poor clinical outcome despite technical success. In the setting of bridging cortical vein thrombus after successful sinus thrombectomy, direct chemical thrombolysis may be warranted to dissolve the remaining clot. This model may be helpful in developing and testing a new generation of devices designed specifically for CVST treatment.

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Newton Cho, Vincent D. W. Nga, Raheel Ahmed, Jerry C. Ku, Pablo M. Munarriz, Prakash Muthusami, James T. Rutka, and Peter Dirks

OBJECTIVE

Pediatric rolandic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) present a treatment challenge given the lifetime risk of hemorrhage, rehemorrhage, and associated long-term morbidity. Microsurgical resection has been recommended as the optimal treatment for AVMs in general, but there is no dedicated literature on the outcomes of resection of pediatric rolandic AVMs. Here, the study objective was to review the outcomes of microsurgical resection of pediatric rolandic AVMs in the modern era, together with the utilization of surgical adjuncts including navigation, intraoperative angiography, and neurophysiological monitoring.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of patients 18 years of age and younger with cerebral AVMs microsurgically treated between January 2000 and May 2016 at The Hospital for Sick Children. Only those patients with an AVM whose nidus was located within the rolandic region were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed to identify patient demographics, preoperative AVM characteristics, and postoperative obliteration rates and neurological complications.

RESULTS

A total of 279 AVMs were evaluated in the study period. Twenty-three of these AVMs were rolandic, and the median age in the 11 microsurgically treated cases was 11 years (range 1–17 years). AVM hemorrhage was the most common presentation, occurring in 8 patients (73%). Lesions were either Spetzler-Martin grade II (n = 8, 73%) or grade III (n = 3, 27%). The postoperative obliteration rate of AVMs was 100%. The mean imaging follow-up duration was 33 months (range 5–164 months). There was no documented recurrence of an AVM during follow-up. One patient developed a transient postoperative hemiparesis, while another patient developed right fingertip hyperesthesia.

CONCLUSIONS

Microsurgical resection of rolandic pediatric AVMs yields excellent AVM obliteration with minimal neurological morbidity in selected patients. The incorporation of surgical adjuncts, including neurophysiological monitoring and neuronavigation, allows accurate demarcation of functional cortex and enables effective resection.