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Young Soo Kim, Sang Won Lee, Jeong A Yeom, Chang Hyo Yoon and Seung Kug Baik

OBJECT

Stent-assisted coil embolization for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms has been used widely. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stent implantation in the nonatherosclerotic parent artery with cerebral aneurysms. The authors evaluated luminal changes and the related factors following stent-assisted coil embolization.

METHODS

This study included 97 patients harboring a total of 99 unruptured aneurysms of the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) who underwent single-stent implantation and more than 1 session of conventional angiography during follow-up (midterm follow-up only, n = 70; midterm and long-term follow-up, n = 29) between January 2009 and April 2014. The luminal narrowing point was measured using a local thickness map (ImageJ plug-in).

RESULTS

Stent-assisted coil embolization caused dynamic luminal narrowing of approximately 82% of the parent artery diameter on average after 8 months, which was reversed to 91% after 25 months. In addition, luminal narrowing greater than 40% was noticed in 2 (7%) of the 29 patients who experienced spontaneous reversion without additional management during follow-up. Most luminal narrowing changes seen were diffuse.

CONCLUSIONS

Luminal narrowing after aneurysm stent-assisted coil embolization is a dynamic process and appears to be a spontaneously reversible event. Routine management of luminal narrowing may not cause adverse events that require additional treatment.

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Jeong Eun Kim, Jeong Hoon Kim, Oh Lyong Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Dong Gyu Kim, Je G. Chi and Hee-Won Jung

Object. Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) are rarely symptomatic. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical, neuroimaging, surgical, and pathological features of symptomatic RCCs with special attention to their recurrence.

Methods. This retrospective study involved 53 patients with pathologically confirmed symptomatic RCCs. There were 28 female and 25 male patients, ranging in age from 11 to 68 years (mean 37 years). Common clinical presentations included headache, visual impairment, and endocrine disturbance. The most common endocrine disturbances were hyperprolactinemia and diabetes insipidus. Most of these improved or were resolved after surgery, with the exception of diabetes insipidus and panhypopituitarism. The cysts were intrasellar with suprasellar extension in 33 patients, and ranged in size from 5 to 40 mm (mean 17 mm). In the 50 magnetic resonance (MR) images that were reviewed, the signal intensities were quite variable. Fourteen MR images demonstrated enhancement after an injection of Gd. Intraoperatively, the cyst contents were found to be yellowish (18 patients [37%]) and mucoid (25 patients [51%]). Pathological examinations revealed a pseudostratified columnar epithelium in 26 patients (49%). Abundant squamous metaplasia and a stratified squamous epithelium were also found in 12 patients (23%). Follow-up MR images revealed cyst recurrences that required a repeated operation in six patients. Statistically significant risk factors for a recurrence included enhancement of the lesion on MR images (p = 0.017), the extent of cyst removal (p = 0.012), and the presence of squamous epithelium (p = 0.008).

Conclusions. Rathke cleft cysts are associated with a variety of clinical presentations and sometimes confusing intraoperative and pathological findings. Close postoperative observation with neuroimaging and neuroophthalmological assessment is necessary, especially after a partial removal, as in cases with squamous metaplasia.

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Min-Hee Lee, Nolan B. O’Hara, Yasuo Nakai, Aimee F. Luat, Csaba Juhasz, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano and Jeong-Won Jeong

OBJECTIVE

This study is aimed at improving the clinical utility of diffusion-weighted imaging maximum a posteriori probability (DWI-MAP) analysis, which has been reported to be useful for predicting postoperative motor, language, and visual field deficits in pediatric epilepsy surgery. The authors determined the additive value of a new clustering mapping method in which average direct-flip distance (ADFD) reclassifies the outliers of original DWI-MAP streamlines by referring to their minimum distances to the exemplar streamlines (i.e., medoids).

METHODS

The authors studied 40 children with drug-resistant focal epilepsy (mean age 8.7 ± 4.8 years) who had undergone resection of the presumed epileptogenic zone and had five categories of postoperative deficits (i.e., hemiparesis involving the face, hand, and/or leg; dysphasia requiring speech therapy; and/or visual field cut). In pre- and postoperative images of the resected hemisphere, DWI-MAP identified a total of nine streamline pathways: C1 = face motor area, C2 = hand motor area, C3 = leg motor area, C4 = Broca’s area–Wernicke’s area, C5 = premotor area–Broca’s area, C6 = premotor area–Wernicke’s area, C7 = parietal area–Wernicke’s area, C8 = premotor area–parietal area, and C9 = occipital lobe–lateral geniculate nucleus. For each streamline of the identified pathway, the minimal ADFD to the nine exemplars corrected the pathway membership. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to determine how accurately two fractional predictors, Δ1–9 (postoperative volume change of C1–9) and γ1–9 (preoperatively planned volume of C1–9 resected), predicted postoperative motor, language, and visual deficits.

RESULTS

The addition of ADFD to DWI-MAP analysis improved the sensitivity and specificity of regression models for predicting postoperative motor, language, and visual deficits by 28% for Δ1–3 (from 0.62 to 0.79), 13% for Δ4–8 (from 0.69 to 0.78), 13% for Δ9 (from 0.77 to 0.87), 7% for γ1–3 (from 0.81 to 0.87), 1% for γ4–8 (from 0.86 to 0.87), and 24% for γ9 (from 0.75 to 0.93). Preservation of the eloquent pathways defined by preoperative DWI-MAP analysis with ADFD (up to 97% of C1–4,9) prevented postoperative motor, language, and visual deficits with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 88% to 100%.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study suggests that postoperative functional outcome substantially differs according to the extent of resected white matter encompassing eloquent cortex as determined by preoperative DWI-MAP analysis. The preservation of preoperative DWI-MAP–defined pathways may be crucial to prevent postoperative deficits. The improved DWI-MAP analysis may provide a complementary noninvasive tool capable of guiding the surgical margin to minimize the risk of postoperative deficits for children.

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Min-Hee Lee, Nolan B. O’Hara, Hirotaka Motoi, Aimee F. Luat, Csaba Juhász, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano and Jeong-Won Jeong

OBJECTIVE

In this study the authors investigated the clinical reliability of diffusion weighted imaging maximum a posteriori probability (DWI-MAP) analysis with Kalman filter prediction in pediatric epilepsy surgery. This approach can yield a suggested resection margin as a dynamic variable based on preoperative DWI-MAP pathways. The authors sought to determine how well the suggested margin would have maximized occurrence of postoperative seizure freedom (benefit) and minimized occurrence of postoperative neurological deficits (risk).

METHODS

The study included 77 pediatric patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy (age 10.0 ± 4.9 years) who underwent resection of their presumed epileptogenic zone. In preoperative DWI tractography from the resected hemisphere, 9 axonal pathways, Ci=1–9, were identified using DWI-MAP as follows: C1–3 supporting face, hand, and leg motor areas; C4 connecting Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas; C5–8 connecting Broca’s, Wernicke’s, parietal, and premotor areas; and C9 connecting the occipital lobe and lateral geniculate nucleus. For each Ci, the resection margin, di, was measured by the minimal Euclidean distance between the voxels of Ci and the resection boundary determined by spatially coregistered postoperative MRI. If Ci was resected, di was assumed to be negative (calculated as –1 × average Euclidean distance between every voxel inside the resected Ci volume, ri). Kalman filter prediction was then used to estimate an optimal resection margin, d*i, to balance benefit and risk by approximating the relationship between di and ri. Finally, the authors defined the preservation zone of Ci that can balance the probability of benefit and risk by expanding the cortical area of Ci up to d*i on the 3D cortical surface.

RESULTS

In the whole group (n = 77), nonresection of the preoperative preservation zone (i.e., actual resection margin d*i greater than the Kalman filter–defined d*i) accurately predicted the absence of postoperative motor (d*1–3: 0.93 at seizure-free probability of 0.80), language (d*4–8: 0.91 at seizure-free probability of 0.81), and visual deficits (d*9: 0.90 at seizure-free probability of 0.75), suggesting that the preservation of preoperative Ci within d*i supports a balance between postoperative functional deficit and seizure freedom. The subsequent subgroup analyses found that preservation of preoperative Ci =1–4,9 within d*i =1–4,9 may provide accurate deficit predictions independent of age and seizure frequency, suggesting that the DWI-based surgical margin can be effective for surgical planning even in young children and across a range of epilepsy severity.

CONCLUSIONS

Integrating DWI-MAP analysis with Kalman filter prediction may help guide epilepsy surgery by visualizing the margins of the eloquent white matter pathways to be preserved.

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Jin Pyeong Jeon, Jeong Eun Kim, Won-Sang Cho, Jae Seung Bang, Young-Je Son and Chang Wan Oh

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of future stroke prevention, perioperative complications, and angiographic revascularization in adults with symptomatic moyamoya disease (MMD) according to treatment modalities and surgical techniques.

METHODS

A systemic literature review was performed based on searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases. A fixed-effects model was used in cases of heterogeneity less than 50%. Publication bias was determined by Begg’s funnel plot, Egger’s test of the intercept, and the Begg and Mazumdar rank correlation test.

RESULTS

Eleven articles were included in the meta-analysis. Bypass surgery significantly decreased the future stroke events compared with conservative treatments in adult MMD (odds ratio [OR] 0.301, p < 0.001). Direct bypass showed better future stroke prevention than indirect bypass (OR 0.494, p = 0.028). There was no meaningful difference in perioperative complications between direct and indirect bypass (OR 0.665, p = 0.176). Direct bypass was associated with better angiographic outcomes than indirect bypass (OR 6.832, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Bypass surgery can be effective in preventing future stoke events in adults with MMD. Direct bypass seems to provide better risk reduction with respect to stroke than indirect bypass in these patients.

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Kyung Hwan Kim, So Jeong Kang, Jung-Won Choi, Doo-Sik Kong, Ho Jun Seol, Do-Hyun Nam and Jung-Il Lee

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to verify the effect of proactive Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the treatment of asymptomatic meningioma compared with the natural course without any therapeutic intervention.

METHODS

From January 2006 to May 2017, 354 patients newly diagnosed with asymptomatic meningioma were reviewed and categorized into GKS (n = 153) and observation (n = 201) groups. Clinical and radiological progression rates were examined, and changes in volume were analyzed.

RESULTS

Clinical progression (i.e., clinician-judged progression), combining symptomatic progression (n = 43) and clinician-judged increase in size using images routinely acquired (n = 34), occurred in 4 patients (2.6%) and 73 patients (36.3%) in the GKS and observation groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The clinical progression-free survival (PFS) rates in the GKS and observation groups were 98.7% and 64.6%, respectively, at 5 years (p < 0.001), and 92.9% and 42.7%, respectively, at 10 years (p < 0.001). The radiological tumor control rate was 94.1% in the GKS group, and radiological progression was noted in 141 patients (70.1%) in the observation group. The radiological PFS rates in the GKS and observation groups were 94.4% and 38.5%, respectively, at 5 years (p < 0.001), and 88.5% and 7.9%, respectively, at 10 years (p < 0.001). Young age, absence of calcification, peritumoral edema, and high T2 signal intensity were correlated with clinical progression in the observation group. Volumetric analysis showed that untreated tumors gradually increased in size. However, GKS-treated tumors shrank gradually, although transient volume expansion was observed in the first 6 months. Adverse events developed in 26 of the 195 GKS-treated patients (13.3%), including 1 (0.5%) major event requiring microsurgery due to severe edema after GKS. Peritumoral edema was related to the development of adverse events (p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

Asymptomatic meningioma is a benign disease; however, nearly two-thirds of patients experience tumor growth and one-third of untreated patients eventually require neurosurgical interventions during watchful waiting. GKS can control tumors clinically and radiologically with high probability. Although the risk of transient adverse events exists, proactive GKS may be a reasonable treatment option when there are no comorbidities limiting life expectancy.

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Ji Hoon Phi, Sun Ha Paek, Hyun-Tai Chung, Sang Soon Jeong, Chul-Kee Park, Hee-Won Jung and Dong Gyu Kim

Object

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the tumor control rate and functional outcome after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in patients with a trigeminal schwannoma. The conditions associated with the development of cranial neuropathies after radiosurgery were scrutinized.

Methods

The authors reviewed the clinical records and radiological data in 22 consecutive patients who received GKS for a trigeminal schwannoma. The median tumor volume was 4.1 ml (0.2–12.0 ml), and the mean tumor margin dose was 13.3 ± 1.3 Gy at an isodose line of 49.9 ± 0.6% (mean ± standard deviation). The median clinical follow-up period was 46 months (range 24–89 months), and the median length of imaging follow-up was 37 months (range 24–79 months).

Results

Tumor growth control was achieved in 21 (95%) of the 22 patients. Facial pain responded best to radio-surgery, with two thirds of patients showing improvement. However, only one third of patients with facial hypesthesia improved. Six patients (27%) experienced new or worsening cranial neuropathies after GKS. Ten patients (46%) showed tumor expansion after radiosurgery, and nine of these also showed central enhancement loss. Loss of central enhancement, tumor expansion, and a tumor in a cavernous sinus were found to be significantly related to the emergence of cranial neuropathies.

Conclusions

The use of GKS to treat trigeminal schwannoma resulted in a high rate of tumor control and functional improvement. Cranial neuropathies are bothersome complications of radiosurgery, and tumor expansion in a cavernous sinus after radiosurgery appears to be the proximate cause of the complication. Loss of central enhancement could be used as a warning sign of cranial neuropathies, and for this vigilant patient monitoring is required.

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Jung Ho Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Chul-Kee Park, Sun Ha Paek, Jeong Eun Kim, Hee-Won Jung and Dae Hee Han

Object

In this paper the authors analyzed the clinical and neuroimaging outcomes of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), focusing on the analysis of the radiation injury rate depending on the AVM volume.

Methods

Between 1997 and 2004, 277 consecutive patients with cerebral AVMs were treated with GKS. Of these patients, 218 were followed up for ≥ 2 years. The mean age was 31 ± 15 years, the median AVM volume was 3.4 cm3 (range 0.17–35.2 cm3), the median marginal dose was 18.0 Gy (range 10.0–25.0 Gy), and the mean follow-up duration was 44 ± 20 months. The authors reduced the prescription dose by various amounts, depending on the AVM volume and location as prescribed in the classic guideline to avoid irreversible radiation injuries.

Results

The angiographic obliteration rate was 66.4% overall, and it was 81.7, 53.1, and 12.5% for small, medium, and large AVMs, respectively. The overall annual bleeding rate was 1.9%. The annual bleeding rate was 0.44 and 4.64% for small and large AVMs, respectively. Approximately 20% of the patients showed severe postradiosurgery imaging (PRI) changes. The rate of PRI change was 11.4, 33.3, and 9.5% for small, medium, and large AVM volume groups, respectively, and a permanent radiation injury developed in 5.1% of patients.

Conclusions

By using the reduced dose from what is usually prescribed, the authors were able to obtain outcomes in small AVMs that were comparable to the outcomes described in previous reports. However, medium AVMs appear to still be at risk for adverse radiation effects. Last, in large AVMs, the authors were able to attain a tolerable rate of radiation injury; however, the clinical outcomes were quite disappointing following administration of a reduced dose of GKS for large AVMs.

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Dong Gyu Kim, Chi Heon Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Sun Ha Paek, Sang Soon Jeong, Dae Hee Han and Hee-Won Jung

Object. The authors analyzed tumor control rates and complications in patients with superficially located meningiomas after gamma knife surgery (GKS).

Methods. Between 1998 and 2003, GKS was performed in 23 patients with 26 lesions in whom follow-up imaging for 1 year or more was available. The male/female ratio was 1:22. The mean age was 59 years. The median tumor volume was 4.7 cm3, and the mean margin dose was 16 Gy at the 50% isodose line. Peritumoral edema was revealed on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in four patients before GKS. Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examinations were performed every 6 months after GKS. The mean follow-up duration was 32 months.

The tumor shrank in eight cases, was stable in 17, and enlarged in one; thus 25 (95%) of 26 tumors were controlled. A peritumoral high signal on T2-weighted MR images was found in eight lesions and preexisting edema was aggravated in three lesions after GKS. Ten of these 11 patients complained of severe headache, and three patients experienced neurological deficits at the same time after a mean latency of 3 months; however, high signal was not demonstrated on imaging before 6 months on average. Steroid agents, when required, gave relief to all patients. The complication rate was 43% (10 of 23 cases). High signal disappeared in nine patients and decreased in the remaining two. High signal was associated with a high integral dose and a large tumor volume. Tumor shrinkage at the last follow-up examination was more prominent in the patients with symptomatic high signal (p = 0.03).

Conclusions. There was a good tumor control rate with a high complication rate. Longer follow up of more patients is needed. Adjusting the dose—volume relationship should be considered to reduce complications.

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Jin Pyeong Jeon, Jeong Eun Kim, Jun Hyong Ahn, Won-Sang Cho, Young Dae Cho, Young-Je Son, Jae Seung Bang, Hyun-Seung Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn, Hyun-Tai Chung, Chang Wan Oh and Dong Gyu Kim

OBJECT

Treatment strategies for venous-predominant arteriovenous malformation (vp-AVM) remain unclear due to the limited number of cases and a lack of long-term outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report the authors’ experience with treatment outcomes with a review of the pertinent literature in patients with vp-AVM.

METHODS

Medical and radiological data from 1998 to 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. The degree of the arteriovenous (AV) shunt was categorized into 2 groups, a high- and low-flow AV shunt based on the angiographic findings.

RESULTS

Sixteen patients with a mean age of 45.3 years (range 16–78 years) and a mean follow-up of 79.9 months (range 25–264 months) were examined. Symptomatic lesions were noted in 13 patients: intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 9, seizure in 1, and headache in 3. A high-flow shunt was observed on angiography in 13 patients. Among these 13 patients, 12 patients were symptomatic. Nine patients presenting with ICH underwent hematoma removal with additional Gamma Knife surgery (GKS; n = 4), GKS only (n = 2), or conservative treatment (n = 3). The 3 asymptomatic patients received conservative treatment, and 1 rebleeding episode was observed. Seven of 8 patients who underwent GKS as an initial or secondary treatment modality experienced a marked reduction in the AV shunt on follow-up angiography, but complete obliteration was not observed.

CONCLUSIONS

Poor lesion localization makes a vp-AVM challenging to treat. Symptomatic patients with a high-flow shunt are supposedly best treated with GKS, despite the fact that only 87.5% of the vp-AVMs treated this way showed a reduction in the malformation volume, and none were cured.