Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 29 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jens R. Chapman x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Doniel Drazin, Jens R. Chapman, Andrew Dailey, and John Street

Restricted access

W. Bradley Jacobs, Richard J. Bransford, Carlo Bellabarba, and Jens R. Chapman

Object

Charcot spinal arthropathy (CSA) is an uncommon disorder that occurs in the setting of conditions with decreased protective sensation of the vertebral column, resulting in vertebral joint degeneration, pain, and deformity. Historically, CSA treatment has been fraught with high failure rates. Over time, the authors' institution has trended toward a CSA treatment paradigm of intralesional debridement, circumferential fusion, and four-rod lumbopelvic fixation. As such, the overall objectives of this study were to define the specific clinical characteristics of this rare condition and to determine whether the authors' treatment paradigm has decreased the incidence of revision due to hardware failure/presumed pseudarthrosis or the development of a new CSA over the course of the study and in comparison with historical controls.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective review of the clinical and radiographic records for all patients with CSA treated by the Spine Service at the University of Washington between 1997 and 2009.

Results

Twenty-three patients with CSA were identified. The mean age at presentation was 43.1 years, and the mean latency between spinal cord injury and CSA diagnosis was 19.6 years. The mean follow-up was 33.1 months. Pain and progressive deformity were the major presenting symptoms. Concomitant infection was identified in 17% of patients. Patients with CSA were noted to have long initial fusion constructs spanning an average of 8.4 vertebral levels. Charcot spinal arthropathy did not occur above the level of neurological injury. The vast majority of CSA cases occurred caudally along the spinal axis, with 65% occurring within 1 level of the caudal end of the index fusion construct and 35% occurring even farther distally. Revision due to hardware failure or the development of a new CSA level occurred in 35% of patients. Rates of treatment failure requiring revision significantly decreased over the course of the study, with revision occurring in 6 (66%) of 9 patients who underwent surgery before 2002, in comparison with only 2 (14%) of 14 treated between 2002 and 2009. During a mean follow-up period of 34 months, no treatment revision occurred in the subgroup of 9 patients who underwent four-rod lumbopelvic fixation.

Conclusions

This study represents the largest reported modern surgical series of CSA patients. While revision rates were initially high and comparable to previous reports, the authors' multimodal treatment paradigm, which includes the use of bone morphogenetic protein and four-rod lumbopelvic fixation, dramatically reduced the incidence of treatment failure requiring revision over the course of the study period and represents a significant improvement in the treatment of CSA.

Restricted access

Wyatt L. Ramey, Andrew S. Jack, and Jens R. Chapman

The use of multirod constructs in the setting of adult spinal deformity (ASD) began to prevent rod fracture and pseudarthrosis near the site of pedicle subtraction osteotomies (PSOs) and 3-column osteotomies (3COs). However, there has been unclear and inconsistent nomenclature, both clinically and in the literature, for the various techniques of supplemental rod implantation. In this review the authors aim to provide the first succinct lexicon of multirod constructs available for the treatment of ASD, providing a universal nomenclature and definition for each type of supplementary rod. The primary rod of ASD constructs is the longest rod that typically spans from the bottom of the construct to the upper instrumented vertebrae. The secondary rod is shorter than the primary rod, but is connected directly to pedicle screws, albeit fewer of them, and connects to the primary rod via lateral connectors or cross-linkers. Satellite rods are a 4-rod technique in which 2 rods span only the site of a 3CO via pedicle screws at the levels above and below, and are not connected to the primary rod (hence the term “satellite”). Accessory rods are connected to the primary rods via side connectors and buttress the primary rod in areas of high rod strain, such as at a 3CO or the lumbosacral junction. Delta rods span the site of a 3CO, typically a PSO, and are not contoured to the newly restored lordosis of the spine, thus buttressing the primary rod above and below a 3CO. The kickstand rod itself functions as an additional means of restoring coronal balance and is secured to a newly placed iliac screw on the side of truncal shift and connected to the primary rod; distracting against the kickstand then helps to correct the concavity of a coronal curve. The use of multirod constructs has dramatically increased over the last several years in parallel with the increasing prevalence of ASD correction surgery. However, ambiguity persists both clinically and in the literature regarding the nomenclature of each supplemental rod. This nomenclature of supplemental rods should help unify the lexicon of multirod constructs and generalize their usage in a variety of scientific and clinical scenarios.

Restricted access

Jens R. Chapman, Paul A. Anderson, Christopher Pepin, Sean Toomey, David W. Newell, and M. Sean Grady

✓ Fractures, tumors, and other causes of instability at the cervicothoracic junction pose diagnostic and treatment challenges. The authors report on 23 patients with instability of the cervicothoracic region, which was treated with posterior plate fixation and fusion between the lower cervical and upper thoracic spine. During operation AO reconstruction plates with 8- or 12-mm hole spacing were affixed to the spine using screws in the cervical lateral masses and the thoracic pedicles. Postoperative immobilization consisted of the patient's wearing a simple external brace for 2 months. The following parameters were analyzed during the pre- and postoperative treatment period: neurological status, spine anatomy and reconstruction, and complications. Follow up consisted of clinical and radiographic examinations (mean duration of follow up, 15.4 months; range, 6–41 months).

No neurovascular or pulmonary complications arose from surgery. All patients achieved a solid arthrodesis based on flexion-extension radiographs. There was no significant change in angulation during the postoperative period, but one patient had an increase in translation that was not clinically significant. There were no hardware complications that required reoperation. One patient requested hardware removal in hopes of reducing postoperative pain in the cervicothoracic region. One postoperative wound infection required debridement but not hardware removal. The authors conclude that posterior plate fixation is a satisfactory method of treatment of cervicothoracic instability.

Restricted access

Richard Bransford, Fangyi Zhang, Carlo Bellabarba, Mark Konodi, and Jens R. Chapman

Object

Symptomatic thoracic disc herniations (TDHs) are relatively uncommon and are typically treated with an anterior approach. Various posterior surgical approaches have been developed to treat TDH, but the gold standard remains transthoracic decompression. Certain patients have comorbidities and herniation aspects that are not optimally treated with an anterior approach. A transfacet pedicle-sparing approach was first described in 1995, but outcomes and complications have not been well described. The objective of this study was to assess outcomes and complications in a consecutive series of patients with TDH undergoing posterior transfacet decompression and discectomy with posterior instrumentation and fusion.

Methods

Eighteen consecutive patients undergoing operative management of TDH were identified from a tertiary care referral database. All patients underwent a transfacet pedicle-sparing decompression and segmental instrumentation with interbody fusion. Outcomes and complications were retrospectively assessed in this patient series. Clinical records were scrutinized to assess levels and types of disc herniation; blood loss; pre- and postoperative motor scores, Nurick grades, and visual analog pain scale scores; and complications such as wrong-level surgery, infection, seroma, and neurological changes. Pre- and postoperative imaging studies were reviewed to assess levels and types of herniation, alignment, and accuracy of instrumentation.

Results

Of the 18 patients, 9 had TDHs at multiple levels. The patients presented with symptoms including myelopathy, axial back pain, urinary symptoms, and radiculopathy and radiological evidence of 29 compressive TDHs ranging from T1–2 to T12–L1. Discs were classified as central (10) or paracentral (19). All discs were successfully removed with no incidence of wrong-level surgery or CSF leak. The mean estimated blood loss was 870 ml with no dural tears. Nurick grades improved on average from 2.5 to 1.9. All patients reported improvement in symptoms compared with preoperative status. The mean visual analog scale score improved from 59 to 21. Sixteen of the 18 patients spent an average of 4.2 days in the hospital; the 2 other patients spent 58 and 69 days. The average duration of follow-up was 12.2 months in 14 patients; 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Twelve patients had no complications. Five patients developed postoperative wound infections or seromas requiring additional operative debridement. One patient had a misplaced screw and suboptimally positioned interbody graft requiring revision. One transient neurological deterioration (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] D to ASIA B) occurred postoperatively associated with an inferior segment fracture 20 days after surgery. This necessitated extending the fusion caudally; the patient subsequently experienced a full return to better-than-baseline neurological status.

Conclusions

A modified transfacetal pedicle-sparing approach combined with short segmental fusion offers a safe means of achieving concurrent decompression and segmental stabilization and is an option for certain subtypes of TDH. Although 6 patients required additional surgery for postoperative complications, all patients experienced improvement relative to their preoperative status.

Full access

Gregory C. Wiggins, Sohail Mirza, Carlo Bellabarba, G. Alex West, Jens R. Chapman, and Christopher I. Shaffrey

Object

Anterior decompression and stabilization for thoracic spinal tumors often involves a thoracotomy and can be associated with surgical approach–related complications. An alternative to thoracotomy is surgery via a costotransversectomy exposure.

To delineate the risks of surgery, the authors reviewed their prospective database for patients who had undergone surgery via either of these approaches for thoracic or thoracolumbar tumors. The complications were recorded and graded based on severity and risk of impact on patient outcome.

Methods

Between September 1995 and April 2001, the authors performed 29 costotransversectomies (Group 1) and 18 thoracolumbar or combined (Group 2) approaches as initial operations for thoracic neoplasms. The age, sex, pre-operative motor score, and preoperative Frankel grade did not significantly differ between the groups. In the costotransversectomy group there were greater numbers of metastases, upper thoracic procedures, and affected vertebral levels; additionally, the comorbidity rate based on Charlson score, was higher. The mean Frankel grades at discharge were not significantly different whereas the discharge motor and last follow-up motor scores were better in Group 2. There were 11 Group 1 and seven Group 2 patients who suffered at least one complication. The number or patients with complications, the mean number of complications, and severity of complications did not differ between the groups.

Conclusions

Compared with anterior or combined approaches, the incidence and severity of perioperative complications in the surgical treatment of thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal tumors is similar in patients who undergo costotransversectomy. Costotransversectomy may be the preferred operation in patients with significant medical comorbidity or tumors involving more than one thoracic vertebra.

Free access

Doniel Drazin, J. Patrick Johnson, Tiffany Perry, Michael Y. Wang, Jens R. Chapman, and Bernhard Meyer

Restricted access

Richard J. Bransford, Jens R. Chapman, Andrea C. Skelly, and Ellen M. VanAlstyne

Object

The purpose of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise the evidence for whether there are differences in outcomes or recovery after thoracic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) based on the spinal level, the timing of intervention, or cause of SCI.

Methods

Systematic searches were conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE through January 5, 2012. From 486 articles identified, 10 included data on the population of interest. Included studies were assigned a level of evidence (LOE) rating based on study quality, and an overall strength of evidence was assessed. To estimate the effect of injury level on patient outcomes, the relative risk and risk difference were calculated when data were available.

Results

From 486 citations identified, 3 registry studies and 7 retrospective cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. All were rated as being of poor quality (LOE III). Limited literature exists on the epidemiology of traumatic and nontraumatic SCI. Few studies evaluated outcomes based on SCI level within the thoracic spine. Pulmonary complications and thromboembolic events were less common in persons with lower thoracic SCI (T7–12) than in those with higher thoracic SCI (T1–6) in 2 large studies, but no differences were found in functional outcomes in 4 smaller studies. Patients undergoing earlier surgery (< 72 hours) may have fewer ventilator, ICU, and hospital days than those undergoing later surgery. One small study of SCI during repair of aortic aneurysm compared with traumatic SCI reported similar outcomes for both groups. There are substantial deficiencies in the scientific literature on thoracic SCI in regard to assessment, outcomes ratings, and effectiveness of therapy.

Conclusions

The overall strength of evidence for all outcomes reported is low. Definitive conclusions should not be drawn regarding the prognosis for outcome and recovery after thoracic SCI. From a physiological standpoint, additional methodologically rigorous studies that take into consideration various levels of injury in more anatomically and physiologically relevant form are needed. Use of validated, comprehensive outcomes tools are important to improve our understanding of the impact of thoracic SCI and aid in examining factors in recovery from thoracic SCI.

Restricted access

Gerald A. Grant, Sohail K. Mirza, Jens R. Chapman, H. Richard Winn, David W. Newell, Dolors T. Jones, and M. Sean Grady

Object. The authors retrospectively reviewed 121 patients with traumatic cervical spine injuries to determine the risk of neurological deterioration following early closed reduction.

Methods. After excluding minor fractures and injuries without subluxation, the medical records and imaging studies (computerized tomography and magnetic resonance [MR] images) of 82 patients with bilateral and unilateral locked facet dislocations, burst fractures, extension injuries, or miscellaneous cervical fractures with subluxation were reviewed. Disc injury was defined on MR imaging as the presence of herniation or disruption: a herniation was described as deforming the thecal sac or nerve roots, and a disruption was defined as a disc with high T2-weighted signal characteristics in a widened disc space. Fifty-eight percent of patients presented with complete or incomplete spinal cord injuries. Thirteen percent of patients presented with a cervical radiculopathy, 22% were intact, and 9% had only transient neurological deficits in the field.

Early, rapid closed reduction, using serial plain radiographs or fluoroscopy and Gardner—Wells craniocervical traction, was achieved in 97.6% of patients. In two patients (2.4%) closed reduction failed and they underwent emergency open surgical reduction. The average time to achieve closed reduction was 2.1 ± 0.24 hours (standard error of the mean).

The incidence of disc herniation and disruption in the 80 patients who underwent postreduction MR imaging was 22% and 24%, respectively. However, the presence of disc herniation or disruption did not affect the degree of neurological recovery, as measured by American Spinal Injury Association motor score and the Frankel scale following early closed reduction. Only one (1.3%) of 80 patients deteriorated, but that occurred more than 6 hours following closed reduction.

Conclusions. Although disc herniation and disruption can occur following all types of traumatic cervical fracture subluxations, the incidence of neurological deterioration following closed reduction in these patients is rare. The authors recommend early closed reduction in patients presenting with significant motor deficits without prior MR imaging.