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Daniel W. Fults, Thomas Chen, and Jeffrey N. Bruce

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Jeffrey W. Brennan, David W. Rowed, Julian M. Nedzelski, and Joseph M. Chen

Object. The aims of this study were to review the incidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage complicating the removal of acoustic neuroma and to identify factors that influence its occurrence and treatment.

Methods. Prospective information on consecutive patients who underwent operation for acoustic neuroma was supplemented by a retrospective review of the medical records in which patients with CSF leaks complicating tumor removal were identified. This paper represents a continuation of a previously published series and thus compiles the authors' continuous experience over the last 24 years of practice.

In 624 cases of acoustic neuroma the authors observed an overall incidence of 10.7% for CSF leak. The rate of leakage was significantly lower in the last 9 years compared with the first 15, most likely because of the abandonment of the combined translabyrinthine (TL)—middle fossa exposure. There was no difference in the leakage rate between TL and retrosigmoid (RS) approaches, although there were differences in the site of the leak (wound leaks occurred more frequently after a TL and otorrhea after an RS approach, respectively). Tumor size (maximum extracanalicular diameter) had a significant effect on the leakage rate overall and for RS but not for TL procedures. The majority of leaks ceased with nonsurgical treatments (18% with expectant management and 49% with lumbar CSF drainage). However, TL leaks (especially rhinorrhea) required surgical repair significantly more often than RS leaks. This has not been reported previously.

Conclusions. The rate of CSF leakage after TL and RS procedures has remained stable. Factors influencing its occurrence include tumor size but not surgical approach. The TL-related leaks had a significantly higher surgical repair rate than RS-related leaks, an additional factor to consider when choosing an approach. The problem of CSF leakage becomes increasingly important as nonsurgical treatments for acoustic neuroma are developed.

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Alan R. Tang, Jeffrey W. Chen, Georgina E. Sellyn, Heidi Chen, Shilin Zhao, Stephen R. Gannon, Chevis N. Shannon, and Christopher M. Bonfield

OBJECTIVE

Caregiver stress from a child’s diagnosis can impact a caregiver’s ability to participate in treatment decisions, comply, and manage long-term illness. The aim of this study was to compare caregiver stress in children with craniosynostosis at diagnosis and postoperatively.

METHODS

This prospective study included caregivers of pediatric patients with craniosynostosis receiving operative intervention. Demographics and Parenting Stress Index, Short Form (PSI-SF) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP) surveys at baseline (preoperatively) and 3 and 6 months postoperatively were completed. PSI-SF scores between 15 and 80 are considered normal, with > 85 being clinically significant and requiring follow-up. Higher PIP scores represent increased frequency and difficulty of stressful events due to the child’s illness. Pairwise comparisons were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess for PSI-SF and PIP predictors.

RESULTS

Of 106 caregivers (84% Caucasian), there were 62 mothers and 40 fathers. There were 68 and 45 responses at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, respectively. Regarding the baseline group, more than 80% were between 20 and 40 years of age and 58% had less than 2 years of college education. The median household income fell in the $45,001–$60,000 bracket. There was no significant difference between median baseline PSI-SF score (65, IQR 51–80) and those at 3 months (p = 0.45) and 6 months (p = 0.82) postoperatively. Both median PIP frequency (89 vs 74, p < 0.01) and difficulty (79 vs 71, p < 0.01) scores were lower at 3 months, although no significant difference was observed at 6 months (frequency: 95 vs 91, p = 0.67; difficulty: 82 vs 80, p = 0.34). Female sex, uninsured status, and open surgery type were all risk factors for higher parental stress.

CONCLUSIONS

Stress levels ranged from normal to clinically significant in the caregivers, with sex, uninsured status, and open repair predicting higher stress. Stress decreased at 3 months postoperatively before increasing at 6 months. Intervention targeting caregiver stress should be explored to maintain lower stress observed at 3 months after surgery.

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Arman Jahangiri, Jeffrey R. Wagner, Sung Won Han, Mai T. Tran, Liane M. Miller, Rebecca Chen, Maxwell W. Tom, Lauren R. Ostling, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis Blevins, and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECT

The impact of transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFAs) on preoperative hypopituitarism relative to the incidence of new postoperative endocrine deficits remains unclear. The authors investigated rates of hypopituitarism resolution and development after transsphenoidal surgery.

METHODS

Over a 5-year period, 305 transsphenoidal surgeries for NFAs performed at The California Center for Pituitary Disorders were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS

Patients with preoperative endocrine deficits (n = 153, 50%) were significantly older (mean age 60 vs 54 years; p = 0.004), more frequently male (65% vs 44%; p = 0.0005), and had larger adenomas (2.4 cm vs 2.1 cm; p = 0.02) than patients without preoperative deficits (n = 152, 50%). Of patients with preoperative endocrine deficits, 53% exhibited symptoms. Preoperative deficit rates were 26% for the thyroid axis; 20% and 16% for the male and female reproductive axes, respectively; 13% for the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol axis, and 19% for the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. Laboratory normalization rates 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery without hormone replacement were 26% and 36% for male and 13% and 13% for female reproductive axes, respectively; 30% and 49% for the thyroid axis; 3% and 3% for the cortisol axis; and 9% and 22% for the IGF-1 axis (p < 0.05). New postoperative endocrine deficits occurred in 42 patients (13.7%). Rates of new deficits by axes were: male reproductive 3% (n = 9), female reproductive 1% (n = 4), thyroid axis 3% (n = 10), cortisol axis 6% (n = 19), and GH/IGF-1 axis 4% (n = 12). Patients who failed to exhibit any endocrine normalization had lower preoperative gland volumes than those who did not (0.24 cm3 vs 0.43 cm3, respectively; p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that no variables predicted new postoperative deficits or normalization of the female reproductive, cortisol, and IGF-1 axes. However, increased preoperative gland volume and younger age predicted the chances of a patient with any preoperative deficit experiencing normalization of at least 1 axis. Younger age and less severe preoperative hormonal deficit predicted normalization of the thyroid and male reproductive axes (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

After NFA resection, endocrine normalization rates in this study varied with the hormonal axis and were greater than the incidence of new endocrine deficits. Low preoperative gland volume precluded recovery. Patient age and the severity of the deficiency influenced the recovery of the thyroid and male reproductive axes, the most commonly impaired axes and most likely to normalize postoperatively. This information can be of use in counseling patients with hypopituitarism who undergo NFA surgery.

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Marissa D’Souza, Kevin S. Chen, Jarrett Rosenberg, W. Jeffrey Elias, Howard M. Eisenberg, Ryder Gwinn, Takaomi Taira, Jin Woo Chang, Nir Lipsman, Vibhor Krishna, Keiji Igase, Kazumichi Yamada, Haruhiko Kishima, Rees Cosgrove, Jordi Rumià, Michael G. Kaplitt, Hidehiro Hirabayashi, Dipankar Nandi, Jaimie M. Henderson, Kim Butts Pauly, Mor Dayan, Casey H. Halpern, and Pejman Ghanouni

OBJECTIVE

Skull density ratio (SDR) assesses the transparency of the skull to ultrasound. Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in essential tremor (ET) patients with a lower SDR may be less effective, and the risk for complications may be increased. To address these questions, the authors analyzed clinical outcomes of MRgFUS thalamotomy based on SDRs.

METHODS

In 189 patients, 3 outcomes were correlated with SDRs. Efficacy was based on improvement in Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) scores 1 year after MRgFUS. Procedural efficiency was determined by the ease of achieving a peak voxel temperature of 54°C. Safety was based on the rate of the most severe procedure-related adverse event. SDRs were categorized at thresholds of 0.45 and 0.40, selected based on published criteria.

RESULTS

Of 189 patients, 53 (28%) had an SDR < 0.45 and 20 (11%) had an SDR < 0.40. There was no significant difference in improvement in CRST scores between those with an SDR ≥ 0.45 (58% ± 24%), 0.40 ≤ SDR < 0.45 (i.e., SDR ≥ 0.40 but < 0.45) (63% ± 27%), and SDR < 0.40 (49% ± 28%; p = 0.0744). Target temperature was achieved more often in those with an SDR ≥ 0.45 (p < 0.001). Rates of adverse events were lower in the groups with an SDR < 0.45 (p = 0.013), with no severe adverse events in these groups.

CONCLUSIONS

MRgFUS treatment of ET can be effectively and safely performed in patients with an SDR < 0.45 and an SDR < 0.40, although the procedure is more efficient when SDR ≥ 0.45.