Endoscopic fenestration has been recognized as an accepted treatment choice for patients with symptomatic arachnoid cysts. The success of this procedure, however, is greatly influenced by individual cyst anatomy and location as well as the endoscopic technique used. This review was conducted to assess what variables influence the treatment success for different categories of arachnoid cysts.
Thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic fenestration for treatment of an intracranial arachnoid cyst were identified from a prospective database. The surgical indications and techniques were reviewed, and surgical success rates and patient outcomes were assessed. Specific examples of each cyst category are included to illustrate the technical aspects of endoscopic cyst fenestration.
Endoscopic fenestration of arachnoid cysts was successful when judged by cyst decompression, and symptom resolution was noted in 32 (97%) of 33 cases. The one patient with short-term treatment failure underwent a successful repetition of the operation. There were no surgery-related morbidities or deaths.
Arachnoid cysts are a relatively benign pathological entity that can be managed by performing endoscopically guided cyst wall fenestrations into the ventricular system or cerebrospinal fluid–containing cisterns. Proper patient selection, preoperative planning of endoscope trajectory, use of frameless navigation, and advances in endoscope lens technology and light intensity combine to make this a safe procedure with excellent outcomes.