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Jeffrey O. Ojemann and Daniel L. Silbergeld

✓ Findings of intraoperative rolandic cortex mapping during awake craniotomy for a tumor in a patient with a contralateral upper-extremity amputation are presented. This patient sustained a traumatic amputation at the mid-humerus 24 years previously. Initially he had experienced rare painless phantom limb sensations but none in the past 10 years. Functional mapping during an awake craniotomy was performed to maximize safe tumor resection. Typical temporal and frontal speech areas were identified; motor representation of face and jaw extended more superiorly than sensory representation. Shoulder movements were evoked more laterally than usual at the superior aspect of the craniotomy. A small region of precentral gyrus, between the jaw and shoulder representations, elicited no detectable effect when stimulated. Somatosensory mapping showed a similar topographical distribution of face and mouth cortex; however, posterior and inferior to the shoulder motor cortex, right arm and hand (phantom) sensations were evoked. Evidence suggests that significant motor reorganization occurs following an amputation, with expansion of neighboring homuncular representations without loss of somatosensory representation, despite a long period of time without any sensation referable to the amputated limb. Contrary to models of sensory cortex plasticity, the plasticity of the adult cortex may be system specific, with reorganization present in motor, but not in sensory, cortical systems.

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Jeffrey G. Ojemann, George A. Ojemann and Ettore Lettich

Object. Cortical stimulation mapping has traditionally relied on disruption of object naming to define essential language areas. In this study, the authors reviewed the use of a different language task, verb generation, in mapping language. This task has greater use in brain imaging studies and may be used to test aspects of language different from those of object naming.

Methods. In 14 patients, cortical stimulation mapping performed using a verb generation task provided a map of language areas in the frontal and temporoparietal cortices. These verb generation maps often overlapped object naming ones and, in many patients, different areas of cortex were found to be involved in the two functions. In three patients, stimulation mapping was performed during the initial performance of the verb generation task and also during learned performance of the task. Parallel to findings of published neuroimaging studies, a larger area of stimulated cortex led to disruption of verb generation in response to stimulation during novel task performance than during learned performance.

Conclusions. Results of cortical stimulation mapping closely resemble those of functional neuroimaging when both implement the verb generation task. The precise map of the temporoparietal language cortex depends on the task used for mapping.

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Tord D. Alden, Jeffrey G. Ojemann and T. S. Park

Chiari I malformation is a well-described entity characterized by hindbrain herniation through the foramen magnum. Although the exact origin of congenital Chiari I malformation is unknown, it appears to be caused by a mismatch between the volume of the posterior fossa neural elements and the posterior fossa cranial content. Several theories have been proposed to describe the resultant pathophysiology of this mismatch. It is clear, however, that abnormal cerebrospinal fluid flow and velocity play a role in the symptoms and signs associated with this disorder. The authors will review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for patients with Chiari I malformation.

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Jeffrey G. Ojemann

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Jeffrey G. Ojemann, Christopher J. Moran, Murat Gokden and Ralph G. Dacey Jr.

✓ Lesions involving the sagittal sinus typically present as masses compressing the sinus externally. The authors describe two cases of lesions entirely within the lumen of the sagittal sinus. In one of the cases, syncope was the presenting symptom and surgical resection of the cyst was performed. An entirely intraluminal cyst, consistent with a dural cyst, was resected, followed by reconstruction of the sinus and resolution of symptoms. Entirely intraluminal lesions of the sagittal sinus have rarely been reported as incidental findings. This represents the first report of symptomatic occlusion of a venous sinus by an intraluminal cyst.

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Michael R. Levitt, Jeffrey G. Ojemann and John Kuratani

The insular cortex is an uncommon epileptogenic location from which complex partial seizures may arise. Seizure activity in insular epilepsy may mimic temporal, parietal, or other cortical areas. Semiology, electroencephalography, and even surface electrocorticography recordings may falsely localize other cortical foci, leading to inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. The use of insular depth electrodes allows more precise localization of seizure foci. The authors describe the case of a young girl with seizures falsely localized to the cortex, with foci arising from the insula, as proven by depth electrode recordings. Resection of the insula yielded seizure control.

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Kai J. Miller, Taylor J. Abel, Adam O. Hebb and Jeffrey G. Ojemann

Object

Emerging research in evoked broadband electrocorticographic (ECoG) measurement from the cortical surface suggests that it might cleanly delineate the functional organization of cortex. The authors sought to demonstrate whether this could be done in a same-session, online manner to identify receptive and expressive language areas.

Methods

The authors assessed the efficacy of simple integration of “χ-band” (76–200 Hz) change in the ECoG signal by implementing a simple band-pass filter to estimate broadband spectral change. Following a brief (less than 10-second) period to characterize baseline activity, χ-band activity was integrated while 7 epileptic patients with implanted ECoG electrodes performed a verb-generation task.

Results

While the patients were performing verb-generation or noun-reading tasks, cortical activation was consistently identified in primary mouth motor area, superior temporal gyrus, and Broca and Wernicke association areas. Maps were robust after a mean time of 47seconds (using an “activation overlap” measure). Correlation with electrocortical stimulation was not complete and was stronger for noun reading than verb generation.

Conclusions

Broadband ECoG changes can be captured online to identify eloquent cortex. This demonstrates the existence of a powerful new tool for functional mapping in the operative and chronic implant setting.

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Jeffrey G. Ojemann, Robert L. Grubb, Michael Kyriakos and Kim B. Baker

✓ This 52-year-old woman developed crystal deposition disease involving the cervical vertebrae. She presented with symptomatic spinal cord compression secondary to extensive calcified lesions in the posterior elements of the cervical spine. Surgical decompression with posterior fusion was performed. Histological examination showed hardened deposits of calcium carbonate involving the soft tissue, and dissolution of the vertebral bone trabeculae. There was no inflammatory response to these deposits. One year postoperatively the patient developed severe pulmonary disease associated with the collagen-vascular disorder, scleroderma (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal hypomotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia [CREST] syndrome). Calcium carbonate deposition disease represents an unusual clinical entity that is possibly associated with scleroderma or other collagen-vascular diseases, and it is distinct from ligamentum flavum calcification, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, and hydroxyapatite deposition disease.