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Michael J. Ellis, Jeff Leiter, Thomas Hall, Patrick J. McDonald, Scott Sawyer, Norm Silver, Martin Bunge, and Marco Essig


The goal in this review was to summarize the results of clinical neuroimaging studies performed in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinar ypediatric concussion program.


The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records and neuroimaging findings for all patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age ≤ 19 years; and 2) physician-diagnosed SRC. All patients underwent evaluation and follow-up by the same neurosurgeon. The 2 outcomes examined in this review were the frequency of neuroimaging studies performed in this population (including CT and MRI) and the findings of those studies. Clinical indications for neuroimaging and the impact of neuroimaging findings on clinical decision making were summarized where available. This investigation was approved by the local institutional ethics review board.


A total of 151 patients (mean age 14 years, 59% female) were included this study. Overall, 36 patients (24%) underwent neuroimaging studies, the results of which were normal in 78% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients underwent CT imaging; results were normal in 79% of cases. Abnormal CT findings included the following: arachnoid cyst (1 patient), skull fracture (2 patients), suspected intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient), and suspected hemorrhage into an arachnoid cyst (1 patient). Eleven percent of patients underwent MRI; results were normal in 75% of cases. Abnormal MRI findings included the following: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (1 patient); nonhemorrhagic contusion (1 patient); demyelinating disease (1 patient); and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, cerebellar volume loss, and nonspecific white matter changes (1 patient).


Results of clinical neuroimaging studies are normal in the majority of pediatric patients with SRC. However, in selected cases neuroimaging can provide information that impacts decision making about return to play and retirement from the sport.

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Jeff Dror Golan, Jeffery Alan Hall, Gus O'Gorman, Chantal Poulin, Thierry Ezer Benaroch, Marie-Andrée Cantin, and Jean-Pierre Farmer


Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) has been shown to provide considerable benefit to children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The authors sought to evaluate the risks of postoperative spinal deformities in patients following SDR.


All patients who underwent SDR at McGill University between 1991 and 2001 were identified. Hospital charts and radiographic spinal studies (both preoperative and the latest postoperative) were systematically reviewed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to test all independent variables of potential interest to determine risk factors more likely to be associated with spinal deformity.

There were 98 patients whose mean age at surgery was 5.1 years; the mean radiographic follow-up duration was 5.8 years. Thirty-nine (44.8%) of 87 patients in whom postoperative weight-bearing radiographs were obtained had mild scoliosis, and 17 in whom standing radiographs were acquired had hyperlordosis. In all, 18 of 94 patients (19.1%) who had postoperative radiographs on which the lumbosacral junction was visible were found to have spondylolisthesis. Regression analysis identified the severity of preoperative CP as an important predictor, and less ambulatory patients were more likely to have scoliotic curves. Younger age at surgery and male sex were factors associated with a lower rate of hyperlordosis. Spondylolisthesis developed only in ambulatory children. None of the patients experienced clinically significant deficits.


There was a high rate of radiologically documented deformities in patients with CP who underwent SDR. Ambulatory function, CP severity, age at surgery, and sex may be contributing factors.

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Solon Schur, Jeremy T. Moreau, Hui Ming Khoo, Andreas Koupparis, Elisabeth Simard Tremblay, Kenneth A. Myers, Bradley Osterman, Bernard Rosenblatt, Jean-Pierre Farmer, Christine Saint-Martin, Sophie Turpin, Jeff Hall, Andre Olivier, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Sylvain Baillet, Francois Dubeau, Jean Gotman, and Roy W. R. Dudley


In an attempt to improve postsurgical seizure outcomes for poorly defined cases (PDCs) of pediatric focal epilepsy (i.e., those that are not visible or well defined on 3T MRI), the authors modified their presurgical evaluation strategy. Instead of relying on concordance between video-electroencephalography and 3T MRI and using functional imaging and intracranial recording in select cases, the authors systematically used a multimodal, 3-tiered investigation protocol that also involved new collaborations between their hospital, the Montreal Children’s Hospital, and the Montreal Neurological Institute. In this study, the authors examined how their new strategy has impacted postsurgical outcomes. They hypothesized that it would improve postsurgical seizure outcomes, with the added benefit of identifying a subset of tests contributing the most.


Chart review was performed for children with PDCs who underwent resection following the new strategy (i.e., new protocol [NP]), and for the same number who underwent treatment previously (i.e., preprotocol [PP]); ≥ 1-year follow-up was required for inclusion. Well-defined, multifocal, and diffuse hemispheric cases were excluded. Preoperative demographics and clinical characteristics, resection volumes, and pathology, as well as seizure outcomes (Engel class Ia vs > Ia) at 1 year postsurgery and last follow-up were reviewed.


Twenty-two consecutive NP patients were compared with 22 PP patients. There was no difference between the two groups for resection volumes, pathology, or preoperative characteristics, except that the NP group underwent more presurgical evaluation tests (p < 0.001). At 1 year postsurgery, 20 of 22 NP patients and 10 of 22 PP patients were seizure free (OR 11.81, 95% CI 2.00–69.68; p = 0.006). Magnetoencephalography and PET/MRI were associated with improved postsurgical seizure outcomes, but both were highly correlated with the protocol group (i.e., independent test effects could not be demonstrated).


A new presurgical evaluation strategy for children with PDCs of focal epilepsy led to improved postsurgical seizure freedom. No individual presurgical evaluation test was independently associated with improved outcome, suggesting that it may be the combined systematic protocol and new interinstitutional collaborations that makes the difference rather than any individual test.