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Wissame El Bakkouri, Romain E. Kania, Jean-Pierre Guichard, Guillaume Lot, Philippe Herman, and Patrice Tran Ba Huy


The object of this study was to evaluate the natural history, pattern, and occurrence of tumor growth and its consequences for treatment of small-sized vestibular schwannomas (VSs).


From 1990 to 2005, 386 patients underwent conservative management for VS because of the following: age > 60 years, poor health/medical risks, risk of deterioration of good hearing, small tumor size, minimal or no incapacitating symptoms, and/or patient preference. Tumor size was measured by MR imaging according to the guidelines of the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium. The first MR imaging study was performed 1 year after diagnosis, and subsequent imaging was performed yearly or every 2 years depending on the appearance of new symptoms, tumor growth, or both.


Sixty-one patients were lost to follow-up the first year after presentation. Of the 325 patients for whom 1-year follow-up data were available, 39 showed tumor growth ≥ 3 mm. Conservative management was discontinued for these 39 patients. The patients who returned for follow-up were evaluated at 1- or 2-year intervals depending on tumor growth. The authors extrapolated to obtain data for 2-year intervals, yielding data for 160, 56, 21, and 8 patients at 3, 5, 7, and 9 years after initial presentation, respectively. The overall mean tumor growth rate (±standard deviation) was 1.15 ± 2.4 mm/year. This rate was estimated by pooling all values of tumor growth that had been determined for all patients and dividing by the total number of “events,” with each assessment constituting an event. In 58.6% of patients, the annual tumor growth rate was < 1 mm/year; in 29.2%, 1–3 mm/year; and in 12.2%, ≥ 3 mm/ year. The growth rates of intrameatal (1.02 ± 1.8 mm/year) and extrameatal (1.40 ± 3.1 mm/year) tumors did not differ significantly. No significant association was found between tumor growth rate and sex, age, initial hearing status, or initial tumor grade. Delay in diagnosis was the only significant factor associated with tumor growth rate. During follow-up, conservative management was discontinued for 77 (23.7%) of the 325 patients for whom at least 12-month follow-up data were available; surgery was performed in 60 (77.9%) and radiation therapy in 17 (22.1%).


The results of this study support the role of a conservative “wait-and-scan” policy of management for small-sized VSs because most have a slow growth rate. Long-term neuroimaging follow-up is needed even with non-growing tumors.

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Alexis Guédon, Jean-Pierre Saint-Maurice, Cédric Thépenier, Marc-Antoine Labeyrie, Vittorio Civelli, Carine El Sissy, Michael Eliezer, Armand Aymard, Jean-Pierre Guichard, and Emmanuel Houdart


Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is mainly treated with an endovascular approach. Two major treatment advances include transvenous embolization (TVE) with coils in 1989 and, more recently, transarterial embolization with Onyx. The aim of this study was to present a large monocentric series of patients with DAVF treated with TVE. This series reports more than 20 years of experience and describes the evolution of the medical management of these patients, as well as current indications for this treatment at the authors’ center.


Consecutive patients treated for intracranial DAVFs with TVE from 1995 to 2018 were included. Clinical and imaging data were systematically collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors that were significantly associated with adverse clinical course or complications.


In this study of 136 patients with 142 DAVFs treated with TVE, the occlusion rate was 90%. The median length of follow-up was 11 months. The rate of permanent complications was 5.1%, and the procedure-related mortality rate was 1.5%. Procedure-related mortality was associated with extension of thrombosis that was observed early in our experience. The introduction of a postoperative anticoagulation regimen has drastically decreased the occurrence of this complication. Other minor complications included cochleovestibular syndrome after embolization of lateral sinus DAVF and oculomotor nerve damage after embolization of cavernous sinus DAVF.


TVE allows efficient occlusion of DAVF. It remains a valid option for DAVF located on a sinus that does not participate in normal venous drainage of the brain.