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Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Oded Rabau, Alisson Teles, Susan Ge, Abdulaziz Bin Shebreen, Neil Saran and Jean Ouellet

Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) correction techniques have evolved slowly over the past 40 years and still remain a challenge for the spine surgeon. Avoiding spinal fusion in these patients is key to decreasing morbidity and mortality in this population.

Current treatments for EOS include both conservative and surgical options. The authors present the modified Luqué technique that has been performed at their institution for the past decade. This modified technique relies on Luqué’s principle, but with newer “gliding” implants through a less disruptive approach. The goal of this technique is to delay fusion as long as possible, with the intent to prevent deformity progression while preserving maximal growth.

Normally, these patients will have definitive fusion surgery once they have reached skeletal maturity or as close as possible. Out of 23 patients until present (close to 4-year follow-up), the authors have not performed any revision due to implant failure. Three patients have undergone final fusion as the curve progressed (one patient, 4 years out, had final fusion at age 12 years; two other patients had final fusion at 3 years). These implants, which have the CE mark in Europe, are available in Canada via a special access process with Health Canada. The implants have not yet been submitted to the FDA, as they are waiting on clinical data out of Europe and Canada.

In the following video the authors describe the modified Luqué technique step-by-step.

The video can be found here:

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Alisson R. Teles, Michael Paci, Gabriel Gutman, Fahad H. Abduljabbar, Jean A. Ouellet, Michael H. Weber and Jeff D. Golan


The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical and surgical risk factors for screw-related facet joint violation at the superior level in lumbar fusion.


The authors conducted a retrospective review of a consecutive series of posterior lumbar instrumented fusions performed by a single surgeon. Inclusion criteria were primary lumbar fusion of 1 or 2 levels for degenerative disorders. The following variables were analyzed as possible risk factors: surgical technique (percutaneous vs open screw placement), depth of surgical field, degree of anterior slippage of the superior level, pedicle and facet angle, and facet degeneration of the superior level. Postoperative CT scans were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. Axial, sagittal, and coronal views were reviewed. Pedicle screws were graded as intra-articular if they clearly interposed between the superior and inferior facet joints of the superior level. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with this complication.


One hundred thirty-one patients were included. Interobserver reliability for facet joint violation assessment was high (κ = 0.789). The incidence of superior facet joint violation was 12.59% per top-level screw (33 of 262 proximal screws). The rate of facet violation was 28.0% in the percutaneous technique group (14 of 50 patients) and 12.3% in the open surgery group (10 of 81 patients) (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.09–4.21; p = 0.024). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of facet violation were percutaneous screw placement (adjusted OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.42–7.73; p = 0.006), right-side pedicle screw (adjusted OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.29–7.63; p = 0.011), and facet angle > 45° (adjusted OR 10.95, 95% CI 4.64–25.84; p < 0.0001).


The incidence of facet joint violation was higher in percutaneous minimally invasive than in open technique for posterior lumbar spine surgery. Also, coronal orientation of the facet joint is a significant risk factor independent of the surgical technique.