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Donald W. Gross, Isabelle Merlet, Warren Boling, and Jean Gotman

Object. When considering resection of epileptic generators near the central sulcus, it is essential to define the spatial relationship between the epileptic generator and the primary sensorimotor hand area. In this study, the authors assessed the accuracy of dipole modeling of electroencephalographic spikes and median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) in defining this relationship preoperatively and noninvasively.

Methods. Epileptic spikes and SSEPs in patients with focal central area epilepsy were represented by dipole models coregistered onto global magnetic resonance images. In patients who underwent surgery, spike dipoles were also compared with findings of electrocorticography (ECoG) and with the resection area. To improve the accuracy of the dipole models, anatomical landmarks of the hand area were used to assess the error in SSEP dipole location, and this error measure was used to correct the location of spike dipoles.

Five patients with central epilepsy were studied, three of whom underwent ECoG-guided surgical resections. The location of SSEP dipoles correlated well with anatomical landmarks of the primary sensory hand area. The relative position of the spike and SSEP dipoles correlated well with the patients' ictal symptoms, ECoG findings, and the location of the epileptic focus (as defined by the resection cavity in patients who became seizure free postoperatively). Corrected spike dipoles were located even closer to the resection cavity.

Conclusions. The calculation of the relative location of spike and SSEP dipoles is a simple noninvasive method of determining the relationship between the primary hand area and an epileptic focus in the central area. The spatial resolution of this technique can be further improved using easily identifiable anatomical landmarks.

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Hideaki Tanaka, Jean Gotman, Hui Ming Khoo, André Olivier, Jeffery Hall, and François Dubeau

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to determine which neurophysiological seizure-onset features seen during scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and intracerebral EEG (iEEG) monitoring are predictors of postoperative outcome in a large series of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent resective surgery.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed the records of 75 consecutive patients with focal epilepsy, who first underwent scalp EEG and then iEEG (stereo-EEG) for presurgical assessment and who went on to undergo resective surgery between 2004 and 2015. To determine the independent prognostic factors from the neurophysiological scalp EEG and iEEG seizure-onset information, univariate and standard multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Since scalp EEG and iEEG data were recorded at different times, the authors matched scalp seizures with intracerebral seizures for each patient using strict criteria.

RESULTS

A total of 3057 seizures were assessed. Forty-eight percent (36/75) of patients had a favorable outcome (Engel class I–II) after a minimum follow-up of at least 1 year. According to univariate analysis, a localized scalp EEG seizure onset (p < 0.001), a multilobar intracerebral seizure-onset zone (SOZ) (p < 0.001), and an extended SOZ (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with surgical outcome. According to multivariable analysis, the following two independent factors were found: 1) the ability of scalp EEG to localize the seizure onset was a predictor of a favorable postoperative outcome (OR 6.073, 95% CI 2.011–18.339, p = 0.001), and 2) a multilobar SOZ was a predictor of an unfavorable outcome (OR 0.076, 95% CI 0.009–0.663, p = 0.020).

CONCLUSIONS

The study findings show that localization at scalp seizure onset and a multilobar SOZ were strong predictors of surgical outcome. These predictors can help to select the better candidates for resective surgery.

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Solon Schur, Jeremy T. Moreau, Hui Ming Khoo, Andreas Koupparis, Elisabeth Simard Tremblay, Kenneth A. Myers, Bradley Osterman, Bernard Rosenblatt, Jean-Pierre Farmer, Christine Saint-Martin, Sophie Turpin, Jeff Hall, Andre Olivier, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Sylvain Baillet, Francois Dubeau, Jean Gotman, and Roy W. R. Dudley

OBJECTIVE

In an attempt to improve postsurgical seizure outcomes for poorly defined cases (PDCs) of pediatric focal epilepsy (i.e., those that are not visible or well defined on 3T MRI), the authors modified their presurgical evaluation strategy. Instead of relying on concordance between video-electroencephalography and 3T MRI and using functional imaging and intracranial recording in select cases, the authors systematically used a multimodal, 3-tiered investigation protocol that also involved new collaborations between their hospital, the Montreal Children’s Hospital, and the Montreal Neurological Institute. In this study, the authors examined how their new strategy has impacted postsurgical outcomes. They hypothesized that it would improve postsurgical seizure outcomes, with the added benefit of identifying a subset of tests contributing the most.

METHODS

Chart review was performed for children with PDCs who underwent resection following the new strategy (i.e., new protocol [NP]), and for the same number who underwent treatment previously (i.e., preprotocol [PP]); ≥ 1-year follow-up was required for inclusion. Well-defined, multifocal, and diffuse hemispheric cases were excluded. Preoperative demographics and clinical characteristics, resection volumes, and pathology, as well as seizure outcomes (Engel class Ia vs > Ia) at 1 year postsurgery and last follow-up were reviewed.

RESULTS

Twenty-two consecutive NP patients were compared with 22 PP patients. There was no difference between the two groups for resection volumes, pathology, or preoperative characteristics, except that the NP group underwent more presurgical evaluation tests (p < 0.001). At 1 year postsurgery, 20 of 22 NP patients and 10 of 22 PP patients were seizure free (OR 11.81, 95% CI 2.00–69.68; p = 0.006). Magnetoencephalography and PET/MRI were associated with improved postsurgical seizure outcomes, but both were highly correlated with the protocol group (i.e., independent test effects could not be demonstrated).

CONCLUSIONS

A new presurgical evaluation strategy for children with PDCs of focal epilepsy led to improved postsurgical seizure freedom. No individual presurgical evaluation test was independently associated with improved outcome, suggesting that it may be the combined systematic protocol and new interinstitutional collaborations that makes the difference rather than any individual test.