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Robert R. Smith, C. Jay Kees and Ira D. Hogg

✓ A 22-year-old man admitted to the hospital following a head injury was found to have agenesis of the right internal carotid artery with a large carotid-cavernous anastamosis at the level of the dorsum sellae.

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Nikhil K. Prasad, Robert J. Spinner, Jay Smith, Benjamin M. Howe, Kimberly K. Amrami, Joseph P. Iannotti and Diane L. Dahm

OBJECT

High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can distinguish between intraneural ganglion cysts and paralabral (extraneural) cysts at the glenohumeral joint. Suprascapular intraneural ganglion cysts share the same pathomechanism as their paralabral counterparts, emanating from a tear in the glenoid labrum. The authors present 2 cases to demonstrate that the identification and arthroscopic repair of labral tears form the cornerstone of treatment for intraneural ganglion cysts of the suprascapular nerve.

METHODS

Two patients with suprascapular intraneural ganglion cysts were identified: 1 was recognized and treated prospectively, and the other, previously reported as a paralabral cyst, was identified retrospectively through the reinter-pretation of high-resolution MR images.

RESULTS

Both patients achieved full functional recovery and had complete radiological involution of the intraneural ganglion cysts at the 3-month and 12-month follow-ups, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Previous reports of suprascapular intraneural ganglion cysts described treatment by an open approach to decompress the cysts and resect the articular nerve branch to the glenohumeral joint. The 2 cases in this report demonstrate that intraneural ganglion cysts, similar to paralabral cysts, can be treated with arthroscopic repair of the glenoid labrum without resection of the articular branch. This approach minimizes surgical morbidity and directly addresses the primary etiology of intraneural and extraneural ganglion cysts.

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Jay Jagannathan, Russell R. Lonser, Rene Smith, Hetty L. DeVroom and Edward H. Oldfield

Object

Despite the frequency of cerebellar hemangioblastomas in von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease, their optimum contemporary management has not been defined, and is made complex because of the multiple, progressive, and protean nature of the tumors found in patients with this disorder. To examine modern management and outcomes of cerebellar hemangioblastomas in VHL disease, the authors reviewed findings in patients with this disease who underwent resection of cerebellar hemangioblastomas.

Methods

Consecutive patients with VHL disease who underwent surgery for cerebellar hemangioblastoma(s) at the National Institutes of Health were included. Eighty consecutive patients (44 female and 36 male patients) underwent 126 operations for removal of 164 cerebellar hemangioblastomas (age at surgery 37.8 ± 10.3 years, follow-up duration 96.0 ± 60.3 months). Serial clinical examinations, imaging studies, and operative records were analyzed.

Results

Symptoms and signs included headache (94 operations; 75%), ataxia (55%), dysmetria (29%), and hydrocephalus (28%). Although the primary objective of surgery was resection of the hemangioblastoma considered responsible for symptoms (136 of the hemangioblastomas [83%]), 28 additional hemangioblastomas (17%) were removed during the same surgeries. Tumors associated with symptoms were larger (diameter 1.8 ± 1.9 cm; volume 2.8 ± 3.4 cm3; p < 0.05) and more likely to be associated with peritumoral edema or peritumoral cysts (100% associated with edema and/or cyst; p < 0.05) than asymptomatic tumors (diameter 1.1 ± 0.9 cm; volume 0.7 ± 0.4 cm3; 18%). More tumors were located in the posterior (74%) compared with the anterior (26%) half of the cerebellum (p < 0.05). Three months after resection, symptom improvement/stabilization had occurred following 124 of the operations (98%). Preoperative hydrocephalus resolved after tumor removal in 33 cases (94%) and did not require cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Long-term imaging follow-up (61.5 ± 15.0 months) revealed no recurrences.

Conclusions

Symptoms and signs caused by cerebellar hemangioblastomas in VHL disease are associated with edema and peritumoral cyst formation/propagation and are treated safely and effectively with resection. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion is rarely necessary after complete tumor removal in patients with preoperative hydrocephalus. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas are preferentially distributed in the posterior half of the cerebellum, as they are in the brainstem and spinal cord. Tumor recurrence is avoided by meticulous extracapsular resection.

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Gabriel A. Smith, Steven Chirieleison, Jay Levin, Karam Atli, Robert Winkelman, Joseph E. Tanenbaum, Thomas Mroz and Michael Steinmetz

OBJECTIVE

Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys, completed by patients following an inpatient stay, are utilized to assess patient satisfaction and quality of the patient experience. HCAHPS results directly impact hospital and provider reimbursements. While recent work has demonstrated that pre- and postoperative factors can affect HCAHPS results following lumbar spine surgery, little is known about how these results are influenced by hospital length of stay (LOS). Here, the authors examined HCAHPS results in patients with LOSs greater or less than expected following lumbar spine surgery to determine whether LOS influences survey scores after these procedures.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of HCAHPS surveys, patient demographics, and outcomes following lumbar spine surgery at a single institution. A total of 391 patients who had undergone lumbar spine surgery and had completed an HCAHPS survey in the period between 2013 and 2015 were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into those with a hospital LOS equal to or less than the expected (LTE-LOS) and those with a hospital LOS longer than expected (GTE-LOS). Expected LOS was based on the University HealthSystem Consortium benchmarks. Nineteen questions from the HCAHPS survey were examined in relation to patient LOS. The primary outcome measure was a comparison of “top-box” (“9–10” or “always or usually”) versus “low-box” (“1–8” and “somewhat or never”) scores on the HCAHPS questions. Secondary outcomes of interest were whether the comorbid conditions of cancer, chronic renal failure, diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypertension, stroke, or depression occurred differently with respect to LOS. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher’s exact test for the 2 × 2 contingency tables and the chi-square test for categorical variables.

RESULTS

Two hundred fifty-seven patients had an LTE-LOS, whereas 134 patients had a GTE-LOS. The only statistically significant difference in preoperative characteristics between the patient groups was hypertension, which correlated to a shorter LOS. A GTE-LOS was associated with a decreased likelihood of a top-box score for the HCAHPS survey items on doctor listening and pain control.

CONCLUSIONS

Here, the authors report a decreased likelihood of top-box responses for some HCAHPS questions following lumbar spine surgery if LOS is prolonged. This study highlights the need to further examine the factors impacting LOS, identify patients at risk for long hospital stays, and improve mechanisms to increase the quality and efficiency of care delivered to this patient population.

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Jay Jagannathan, Rene Smith, Hetty L. DeVroom, Alexander O. Vortmeyer, Constantine A. Stratakis, Lynnette K. Nieman and Edward H. Oldfield

Object

Many patients with Cushing disease still have active or recurrent disease after pituitary surgery. The histological pseudocapsule of a pituitary adenoma is a layer of compressed normal anterior lobe that surrounds the adenoma and can be used during surgery to identify and guide removal of the tumor. In this study the authors examined the results of using the pseudocapsule as a surgical capsule in the resection of adenomas in patients with Cushing disease.

Methods

The authors reviewed a prospective database of data obtained in patients with Cushing disease who underwent surgery. The analysis included all cases in which a lesion was identified during surgery and in which the lesion was believed to be confined to the pituitary gland in patients with Cushing disease between January 1990 and March 2007. Since the objective was to determine the success of using the pseudocapsule as a surgical capsule, patients with invasive tumors and patients in whom no lesion was identified during surgery—challenging cases for surgical success—were excluded from analysis.

Results

In 261 patients an encapsulated adenoma was identified at surgery. Tumor was visible on MR imaging in 135 patients (52%); in 126 patients (48%) MR imaging detected no tumor. The range of tumor size overlapped considerably in the groups with positive and negative MR imaging results, indicating that in addition to size other features of the adenoma influence the results of MR imaging. In 252 patients hypercortisolism resolved after the first operation, whereas in 9 patients (3 with positive MR imaging and 6 with negative MR imaging) early reoperation was required. Hypercortisolism resolved in all 261 patients (256 with hypocortisolism and 5 with eucortisolism) before hospital discharge. Forty-six patients (18%) had postoperative electrolyte abnormalities (30 with hyponatremia and 16 with diabetes insipidus), but only 2 patients required treatment at discharge. The mean clinical follow-up duration was 84 months (range 12–215 months). Six patients (2%) had recurrence of hypercortisolism, all of whom were treated successfully with reoperation.

Conclusions

Because of their small size, adenomas can be challenging to identify in patients with Cushing disease. Use of the histological pseudocapsule of an adenoma allows accurate identification of the tumor and helps guide its complete excision. With this approach the overall remission rate is high and the rate of complications is low.

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Timothy J. Yee, Brandon W. Smith, Jacob R. Joseph, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Jay K. Nathan, Elyne N. Kahn, Siri S. Khalsa, Kelsey J. Fearer, Michael J. Kirsch, David R. Nerenz, Victor Chang, Jason M. Schwalb, Muwaffak M. Abdulhak and Paul Park

OBJECTIVE

The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most commonly used patient-reported outcome instruments, but completion of this 10-question survey can be cumbersome. Tools from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) are an alternative, and potentially more efficient, means of assessing physical, mental, and social outcomes in spine surgery. Authors of this retrospective study assessed whether scores on the 4-item surveys of function and pain from the PROMIS initiative correlate with those on the ODI in lumbar spine surgery.

METHODS

Patients evaluated in the adult neurosurgery spine clinic at a single institution completed the ODI, PROMIS Short Form v2.0 Physical Function 4a (PROMIS PF), and PROMIS Short Form v1.0 Pain Interference 4a (PROMIS PI) at various time points in their care. Score data were retrospectively analyzed using linear regressions with calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient.

RESULTS

Three hundred forty-three sets of surveys (ODI, PROMIS PF, and PROMIS PI) were obtained from patients across initial visits (n = 147), 3-month follow-ups (n = 107), 12-month follow-ups (n = 52), and 24-month follow-ups (n = 37). ODI scores strongly correlated with PROMIS PF t-scores at baseline (r = −0.72, p < 0.0001), 3 months (r = −0.79, p < 0.0001), 12 months (r = −0.85, p < 0.0001), and 24 months (r = −0.89, p < 0.0001). ODI scores also correlated strongly with PROMIS PI t-scores at baseline (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001), at 3 months (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001), at 12 months (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001), and at 24 months (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001). Changes in ODI scores moderately correlated with changes in PROMIS PF t-scores (r = −0.68, p = 0.0003) and changes in PROMIS PI t-scores (r = 0.57, p = 0.0047) at 3 months postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

A strong correlation was found between the ODI and the 4-item PROMIS PF/PI at isolated time points for patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Large cohort studies are needed to determine longitudinal accuracy and precision and to assess possible benefits of time savings and improved rates of survey completion.

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Robert J. Coffey, David Cahill, William Steers, T. S. Park, Joe Ordia, Jay Meythaler, Richard Herman, Andrew G. Shetter, Robert Levy, Brian Gill, Richard Smith, Jack Wilberger, John D. Loeser, Charles Chabal, Claudio Feler, James T. Robertson, Richard D. Penn, Aiden Clarke, Kim J. Burchiel and Lyal G. Leibrock

✓ A total of 93 patients with intractable spasticity due to either spinal cord injury (59 cases), multiple sclerosis (31 cases), or other spinal pathology (three cases) were entered into a randomized double-blind placebocontrolled screening protocol of intrathecal baclofen test injections. Of the 88 patients who responded to an intrathecal bolus of 50, 75, or 100 µg of baclofen, 75 underwent implantation of a programmable pump system for chronic therapy. Patients were followed for 5 to 41 months after surgery (mean 19 months). No deaths or new permanent neurological deficits occurred as a result of surgery or chronic intrathecal baclofen administration. Rigidity was reduced from a mean preoperative Ashworth scale score of 3.9 to a mean postoperative score of 1.7. Muscle spasms were reduced from a mean preoperative score of 3.1 (on a fourpoint scale) to a mean postoperative score of 1.0. Although the dose of intrathecal baclofen required to control spasticity increased with time, drug tolerance was not a limiting factor in this study. Only one patient withdrew from the study because of a late surgical complication (pump pocket infection). Another patient received an intrathecal baclofen overdose because of a human error in programming the pump. The results of this study indicate that intrathecal baclofen infusion can be safe and effective for the long-term treatment of intractable spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis.