The authors demonstrate that high-frequency electrical stimulation dorsal to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can directly suppress levodopa-induced dyskinesias. This 63-year-old woman with idiopathic Parkinson disease underwent surgery for placement of bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes to control progressive rigidity, motor fluctuations, and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. The model 3389 DBS leads were implanted with microelectrode guidance. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed proper placement of the leads. Postoperatively the patient exhibited improvement in all of her parkinsonian symptoms; however, her right leg dyskinesias had not improved. Based on their previous experiences treating levodopa-induced dyskinesias with subthalamic stimulation through the more dorsally located contacts of the model 3387 lead, the authors withdrew the implanted 3389 lead 3 mm. Following relocation of the lead they were able to suppress the right leg dyskinesias by using the most dorsal contacts. The patient's dopaminergic medication intake increased slightly. These findings indicate that electrical stimulation dorsal to the STN can directly suppress levodopa-induced dyskinesias independent of dopaminergic medication changes. The 3389 lead may provide inadequate coverage of the subthalamic region for some patients.
Ron L. Alterman, Jay L. Shils, Mark Gudesblatt and Michele Tagliati
Diana Apetauerova, Clemens M. Schirmer, Jay L. Shils, Janet Zani and Jeffrey E. Arle
The authors report the cases of 2 young male patients (aged 16 and 26 years) with dystonic cerebral palsy of unknown origin, who developed status dystonicus, an acute and persistent combination of generalized dystonia and chorea. Both patients developed status dystonicus after undergoing general anesthesia, and in 1 case, after administration of metoclopramide. In attempting to control this acute hyperkinetic movement disorder, multiple medication trials failed in both cases and patients required prolonged intubation and sedation with propofol. Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (4 and 2 months after the onset of symptoms in the first and second case, respectively) produced immediate resolution of the hyperkinetic movement disorder in each case. Deep brain stimulation provided persistent suppression of the dystonic movement potential after a follow-up of 30 and 34 months, respectively, as demonstrated by the reemergence of severe dystonia during the end of battery life of the implantable pulse generators that was readily controlled by exchange of the generators in each case.
Clemens M. Schirmer, Jay L. Shils, Jeffrey E. Arle, G. Rees Cosgrove, Peter K. Dempsey, Edward Tarlov, Stephan Kim, Christopher J. Martin, Carl Feltz, Marina Moul and Subu Magge
Considerable overlap exists in nerve root innervation of various muscles. Knowledge of myotomal innervation is essential for the interpretation of neurological examination findings and neurosurgical decision-making. Previous studies relied on cadaveric dissections, animal studies, and cases with anomalous anatomy. This study investigates the myotomal innervation patterns of cervical and lumbar nerve roots through in vivo stimulation during surgeries for spinal decompression.
Patients undergoing cervical and lumbar surgeries in which nerve roots were exposed in the normal course of surgery were included in the study. Electromyography electrodes were placed in the muscle groups that are generally accepted to be innervated by the roots under study. These locations included levels above and below the spinal levels undergoing decompression. After decompression, a unipolar neural stimulator probe was placed directly on the nerve root sleeve and constant current stimulation in increments of 0.1 mA was performed. Current was raised until at least a 100 μV amplitude–triggered electromyographic response was noted in 1 or more muscles. All muscles that responded were recorded.
A total of 2295 nerve root locations in 129 patients (mean age 57 ± 15 years, 47 female [36%]) were stimulated, and 1589 stimulations met quality criteria and were analyzed. Four hundred ninety-five stimulations were performed on roots contributing to the cervical and brachial plexus from C-3 to T-1 (31.2%), and 1094 (68.8%) were roots in the lumbosacral plexus between L-1 and S-2. The authors were able to construct a statistical map of the contributions of each cervical and lumbosacral nerve root for the set of muscle groups monitored in the protocol. In many cases the range of muscles innervated by a specific root was broader than previously described in textbooks.
This is the largest data set of direct intraoperative nerve root stimulations during decompressive surgery, demonstrating the relative contribution of root-level motor input to various muscle groups. Compared with classic neuroanatomy, a significant number of roots innervate a broader range of muscles than expected, which may account for the variability of presentation between patients with identical number and location of compressed roots.
Jeffrey E. Arle, Diana Apetauerova, Janet Zani, D. Vedran Deletis, Dana L. Penney, Daniel Hoit, Christine Gould and Jay L. Shils
Since the initial 1991 report by Tsubokawa et al., stimulation of the M1 region of cortex has been used to treat chronic pain conditions and a variety of movement disorders.
A Medline search of the literature published between 1991 and the beginning of 2007 revealed 459 cases in which motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was used. Of these, 72 were related to a movement disorder. More recently, up to 16 patients specifically with Parkinson disease were treated with MCS, and a variety of results were reported. In this report the authors describe 4 patients who were treated with extradural MCS.
Although there were benefits seen within the first 6 months in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III scores (decreased by 60%), tremor was only modestly managed with MCS in this group, and most benefits seen initially were lost by the end of 12 months.
Although there have been some positive findings using MCS for Parkinson disease, a larger study may be needed to better determine if it should be pursued as an alternative surgical treatment to DBS.