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Marianna Pegoli, Jay Mandrekar, Alejandro A. Rabinstein and Giuseppe Lanzino

OBJECT

Case fatality rates after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have decreased over time, and many patients treated with modern paradigms return to a normal life. However, there is little information on predictors of excellent functional outcome after aSAH. In this study, the authors investigated predictors of excellent outcome in a modern consecutive series of patients with aSAH.

METHODS

A retrospective review was conducted of patients with aSAH admitted between 2001 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was excellent functional outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 or 1 at last follow-up within 1 year of aSAH.

RESULTS

Three hundred seventy-three patients were identified with posthospital follow-up. Excellent outcome was noted in 236 patients (63.3%), including an mRS score of 0 in 122 (32.7%) and an mRS score of 1 in 114 (30.6%). On univariate analysis, the following factors were associated with an excellent outcome: indicators of less severe bleeding, such as better World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade at any of the times of assessment, better modified Fisher grade, and absence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and symptomatic hydrocephalus; aneurysm treatment with coil embolization; absence of symptomatic vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and radiological infarction; absence of in-hospital seizures; lack of need for CSF diversion; fewer hours with fever; less severe anemia; and absence of transfusion. On multivariable analysis, the 4 variables that were most strongly associated with excellent outcome were presence of good clinical grade after neurological resuscitation, absence of ICH on initial CT scan, blood transfusion during the hospitalization, and radiological infarctions on final brain imaging.

CONCLUSIONS

Excellent outcomes (mRS score 0–1) can be achieved in the majority of patients with aSAH. The likelihood of excellent outcome is predicted by good clinical condition after resuscitation, absence of ICH on presentation, no evidence of infarction on brain imaging, and absence of blood transfusion during hospitalization.

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Timothy J. Kaufmann, Jonathan M. Morris, Andrea Saladino, Jay N. Mandrekar and Giuseppe Lanzino

Object

Little information is available on follow-up MR imaging after treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). The authors studied MR imaging findings in treated spinal DAVFs in relation to clinical outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective review of patients with spinal DAVFs who had undergone both pre- and postoperative spinal MR imaging was conducted. Postoperative MR images were obtained as routine follow-up studies or because of subjective or objective clinical deterioration. Several pre- and posttreatment MR imaging characteristics were evaluated by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to the clinical outcome. Clinical outcomes of motor, sensory, and urinary function (in relation to the patient's preoperative status) at the time of the postoperative MR imaging were obtained from the clinical record. The chi-square, Fisher exact, and rank-sum tests were performed to correlate imaging findings and changes with clinical outcomes.

Results

Thirty-four patients met inclusion criteria. Treatment was surgical in 33 patients and endovascular in 1 patient. Follow-up MR imaging was performed at a mean 168 ± 107 days after treatment. Twenty-seven patients (79.4%) were either clinically stable or improved, and 7 (20.6%) experienced worsening in one or more clinical outcomes. Most patients were found to have improvement of MR imaging changes. However, some degree of persistent spinal cord signal abnormality, enhancement, and swelling was observed in 31 (91.2%), 29 (85.3%), and 18 (52.3%) patients, respectively. Changes in these MR imaging characteristics compared with preoperative MR imaging did not correlate with clinical outcomes (p > 0.05), with the one exception of a significant correlation between change in urinary function and extent of spinal cord contrast enhancement (p = 0.026), a correlation of uncertain importance. Ten of the 34 patients underwent posttreatment digital subtraction angiography, and 3 of these patients had recurrent/residual DAVFs. Worsening of motor function significantly correlated with recurrent/residual DAVF (p = 0.053).

Conclusions

Spinal cord abnormalities persist on postoperative MR imaging studies in patients with treated spinal DAVFs, and although they tend to mildly improve with time, these changes may not correlate with clinical outcomes. However, regardless of imaging findings, worsening motor function may correlate with a recurrent or residual DAVF.

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Jason M. Hoover, Macaulay Nwojo, Ross Puffer, Jay Mandrekar, Fredric B. Meyer and Ian F. Parney

Object

The object of this study was to assess outcomes after surgery for recurrent intracranial glioma.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed cases involving adult patients with intracranial glioma patients undergoing initial surgery (biopsy or resection) and one or more additional surgeries at their institution.

Results

A total of 323 operations were performed in 131 patients. The median survival was 76 months after first surgery, 36 months after second, 24 months after third, and 26.5 months after 4 or more surgeries. The overall complication rate was 12.8% after first surgery, 27.0% after second (OR 2.52, p = 0.0068), 22.0% after third (OR 1.92, not statistically significant [NS]), and 22.2% after 4 or more (OR 1.95, NS). Neurological complications occurred in 4.8% of patients at first surgery, 12.1% at second (OR 2.7, p = 0.0437), 8.2% at third (OR 1.75, NS), and 11.1% at 4 or more surgeries (OR 2.4583, NS). Regional complications occurred in 6.2% after first surgery, 9.9% after second surgery (OR 2.30, p = 0.095), 13.7% after third surgery (OR 3.31, p = 0.015), and 22.2% after 4 or more surgeries (OR 5.95, p = 0.056). Systemic complications occurred in 3.2% after first surgery, in 7.3% after second surgery (OR 2.3, p = 0.NS), in 4.1% after third surgery (OR 1.3, NS), and 0% after 4 or more surgeries. Reduction in Karnofsky Performance Status score occurred in 0% after first surgery, 8.1% after second surgery (OR 3.13, p = 0.0018), 10.2% after third surgery (OR 5.52, p < 0.0001), and 11.1% after 4 or more surgeries (OR 1.037, NS).

Conclusions

Postoperative survival is relatively prolonged but complication risk increases in patients with glioma who undergo multiple cranial surgeries. The largest increase in neurological risk occurs between the first and second surgery. In contrast, regional complication risk increases consistently with each surgery. The risk of systemic complications is not significantly altered with increasing surgeries. However, these complications only result in a modestly increased risk of functional decline after 2 or more surgeries. These findings may help counsel patients considering multiple glioma surgeries.

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Elias A. Giraldo, Jay N. Mandrekar, Mark N. Rubin, Stefan A. Dupont, Yi Zhang, Giuseppe Lanzino, Eelco F. M. Wijdicks and Alejandro A. Rabinstein

Object

Timing of clinical grading has not been fully studied in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The primary objective of this study was to identify at which time point clinical assessment using the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grading scale and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is most predictive of poor functional outcome.

Methods

This study is a retrospective cohort study on the association between poor outcome and clinical grading determined at presentation, nadir, and postresuscitation. Poor functional outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1–3 at 6 months after SAH.

Results

The authors identified 186 consecutive patients admitted to a teaching hospital between January 2002 and June 2008. The patients' mean age (± SD) was 56.9 ± 13.7 years, and 63% were women. Twenty-four percent had poor functional outcome (the mortality rate was 17%). On univariable logistic regression analyses, GCS score determined at presentation (OR 0.80, p < 0.0001), nadir (OR 0.73, p < 0.0001), and postresuscitation (OR 0.53, p < 0.0001); modified Fisher scale (OR 2.21, p = 0.0013); WFNS grade assessed at presentation (OR 1.92, p < 0.0001), nadir (OR 3.51, < 0.0001), and postresuscitation (OR 3.91, p < 0.0001); intracerebral hematoma on initial CT (OR 4.55, p < 0.0002); acute hydrocephalus (OR 2.29, p = 0.0375); and cerebral infarction (OR 4.84, p < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, only cerebral infarction (OR 5.80, p = 0.0013) and WFNS grade postresuscitation (OR 3.43, p < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome. Receiver operating characteristic/area under the curve (AUC) analysis demonstrated that WFNS grade determined postresuscitation had a stronger association with poor outcome (AUC 0.90) than WFNS grade assessed upon admission or at nadir.

Conclusions

Timing of WFNS grade assessment affects its prognostic value. Outcome after aneurysmal SAH is best predicted by assessing WFNS grade after neurological resuscitation.