Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, osteolytic lesions that represent 1%–2% of primary bone tumors. Cranial ABCs are even more rare and represent 3%–6% of these unique lesions. The authors describe the case of a 3-year-old girl who presented with an acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma after minor trauma. Imaging workup revealed a previously undiagnosed suboccipital ABC that appeared to have ruptured as a result of her trauma, leading to a life-threatening hemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, a ruptured ABC has never before been presented in the pediatric literature. In this case report, the authors review the imaging findings, natural history, clinical course, and treatment of these rare lesions.
Sarah T. Garber and Jay K. Riva-Cambrin
Sarah T. Garber, Robert J. Bollo and Jay K. Riva-Cambrin
Pediatric spinal pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is an extremely rare tumor that merits recognition as a specific, unique entity. The authors present the case of an intramedullary PMA in the thoracic spinal cord of an 11-year-old boy who presented with back pain, scoliosis, and multiple lung nodules. The patient underwent T5–11 laminoplasty and near-total resection of the spinal tumor. The final pathological diagnosis was WHO Grade II PMA. The patient did well for 14 months until the tumor progressed both clinically and radiographically. A literature review focusing on the clinical characteristics, histology, and treatment of PMAs provides a better understanding of these rare lesions. Because of the small number of cases optimal treatment guidelines have not been established, but gross-total resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with alkylating agents appear to confer a better long-term prognosis. Pediatric patients with PMAs can remain recurrence free at least 5 years after surgery, although these tumors may disseminate or dedifferentiate into more malignant gliomas. Recognition of intramedullary PMA as a unique entity in children is vital to the development of specific surgical and adjuvant treatment regimens.
Mandy J. Binning, Janet Lee, Emily A. Thorell and Jay K. Riva-Cambrin
The authors report on a case of intracranial candidiasis in an immunocompetent neonate with a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The child was known to be colonized with yeast as she had been treated for oral thrush; however, she did not have systemic candidiasis. Despite initial treatment with antifungal medication, intraventricular fungus balls developed that were visible on imaging and confirmed with pathological analysis. Multiple endoscopic intraventricular operations were required for excision of the initial and recurrent fungus balls, multiple fenestrations of loculations and cysts were performed, and ultimately 3 ventriculoperitoneal shunts were placed. The finding of an intraventricular fungus ball is a unique manifestation of intracranial candidiasis, and to the authors' knowledge has not been previously reported in the English literature.
Walavan Sivakumar, Michael Jensen, Julie Martinez, Michael Tanana, Nancy Duncan, Robert Hoesch, Jay K. Riva-Cambrin, Craig Kilburg, Safdar Ansari and Paul A. House
The authors designed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate intravenous acetaminophen as a scheduled adjunct with our standardized craniotomy pain control regimen. No statistically significant effect was found in narcotic consumption at 24 or 48 hours after surgery. At 24 but not 48 hours, patients treated with intravenous acetaminophen did report significantly lower pain scores than patients given the placebo. These data provide only modest support for using intravenous acetaminophen to improve postoperative craniotomy pain.