Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 14 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jason S. Hauptman x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Jason S. Hauptman, Daniel S. Chow, Neil A. Martin and Michael W. Itagaki

Object

While research is important for the survival, growth, and expansion of neurosurgery, little work has been done to quantify the status and trends of neurosurgical publications. The purpose of this bibliometric study was to quantitatively analyze trends in neurosurgical publications, including changes in worldwide productivity, study methodology, subspecialty topic, and funding.

Methods

This was a retrospective bibliometric study using MEDLINE to record all publications between 1996 and 2009 by first authors affiliated with neurosurgical departments. Country of origin, MEDLINE-defined methodology, study topic, and funding sources (for US articles) were recorded. Linear regression was used to derive growth rates.

Results

Total articles numbered 53,425 during the study period, with leading global contributors including the US with 16,943 articles (31.7%) and Japan with 10,802 articles (20.2%). Countries demonstrating rapid growth in productivity included China (121.9 ± 9.98%/year, p < 0.001), South Korea (50.5 ± 4.7%/year, p < 0.001), India (19.4 ± 1.8%/year, p < 0.001), and Turkey (25.3 ± 2.8%/year, p < 0.001). While general research articles, case reports, and review articles have shown steady growth since 1996, clinical trials and randomized controlled trials have declined to 2004 levels. The greatest overall subspecialty growth was seen in spine surgery. Regarding funding, relative contribution of National Institutes of Health (NIH)–funded publications decreased from 30.2% (290 of 959) to 22.5% (356 of 1229) between 1996 and 2009.

Conclusions

Neurosurgical publications demonstrate continued increases in productivity as well as in global expansion, although US contributions remain dominant. Two challenges that the neurosurgical community is facing include the preponderance of case reports and review articles and the relative decline in NIH funding for US neurosurgical publications, as productivity has outpaced government financial support.

Full access

Parham Moftakhar, Jason S. Hauptman, Dennis Malkasian and Neil A. Martin

Object

The scientific understanding of the nature of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain is evolving. It is clear from current work that AVMs can undergo a variety of phenomena, including growth, remodeling, and/or regression—and the responsible processes are both molecular and physiological. A review of these complex processes is critical to directing future therapeutic approaches. The authors performed a comprehensive review of the literature to evaluate current information regarding the genetics, pathophysiology, and behavior of AVMs.

Methods

A comprehensive literature review was conducted using PubMed to reveal the molecular biology of AVMs as it relates to their complex growth and behavior patterns.

Results

Growth factors involved in AVMs include vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor β, angiopoietins, fibronectin, laminin, integrin, and matrix metalloproteinases.

Conclusions

Understanding the complicated molecular milieu of developing AVMs is essential for defining their natural history. Growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and other molecular markers will be the key to unlocking novel targeted drug treatments for these brain malformations.

Full access

Parham Moftakhar, Jason S. Hauptman, Dennis Malkasian and Neil A. Martin

Object

The scientific understanding of the nature of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain is evolving. It is clear from current work that AVMs can undergo a variety of phenomena, including growth, remodeling, and/or regression—and the responsible processes are both molecular and physiological. A review of these complex processes is critical to directing future therapeutic approaches. The authors performed a comprehensive review of the literature to evaluate current information regarding the genetics, pathophysiology, and behavior of AVMs.

Methods

A comprehensive literature review was conducted using PubMed to reveal the angioarchitecture and cerebral hemodynamics of AVMS as they relate to lesion development.

Results

Feeding artery pressures, brain AVM compartmentalization, venous drainage, flow phenomena, and vascular steal are discussed.

Conclusions

The dynamic nature of brain AVMs is at least in part attributable to hemodynamic and flow-related phenomena. These forces acting on an evolving structure are critical to understanding the challenges in endovascular and surgical therapy. As knowledge in this field continues to progress, the natural history and predicted behavior of these AVMs will become more clearly elucidated.

Full access

Gurpreet S. Gandhoke, Jason S. Hauptman, David J. Salvetti, Gregory M. Weiner, Ashok Panigrahy, Sabri Yilmaz and Ian F. Pollack

The authors report a unique case of a transosseous CSF fistula that was detected more than 10 years after treatment of a symptomatic Chiari I malformation. This lesion initially presented as an intraosseous cystic lesion involving the C-2 vertebra, which was found to communicate freely with the subarachnoid space through a tiny dural opening. Surgical management involved hemilaminectomy and repair of the dural defect followed by reinforcement of the bony defect with demineralized bone matrix. Following closure of the fistula, symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure developed, necessitating a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for CSF diversion.

Full access

Jason S. Hauptman, Robert Bollo, Rama Damerla, Brian Gibbs, Cecilia Lo, Aviva Katz and Stephanie Greene

Myelomeningocele and gastroschisis, on their own, are both relatively common entities encountered in pediatric surgical care. Coexistence of these pathologies, however, is exceedingly rare. The authors report on 2 patients who presented with myelomeningocele and gastroschisis at birth. They obtained blood for whole-exome analysis for one of the patients and identified 3 mutations that could be related to the underlying anomalies: homozygous mutations in FAM171B and ABCA1 and a hemizygous (X-linked) mutation in COL4A5. Of these, FAM171B and ABCA1 both have function that may be related to the underlying disease.

Free access

John R. Williams, Christopher C. Young, Nicholas A. Vitanza, Margaret McGrath, Abdullah H. Feroze, Samuel R. Browd and Jason S. Hauptman

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a universally fatal pediatric brainstem tumor affecting approximately 300 children in the US annually. Median survival is less than 1 year, and radiation therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for decades. Recent advances in the biological understanding of the disease have identified the H3K27M mutation in nearly 80% of DIPGs, leading to the 2016 WHO classification of diffuse midline glioma H3K27M-mutant, a grade IV brainstem tumor. Developments in epigenetic targeting of transcriptional tendencies have yielded potential molecular targets for clinical trials. Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy has also shown preclinical promise. Recent clinical studies, including prospective trials, have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of pediatric brainstem biopsy in the setting of DIPG and other brainstem tumors. Given developments in the ability to analyze DIPG tumor tissue to deepen biological understanding of this disease and develop new therapies for treatment, together with the increased safety of stereotactic brainstem biopsy, the authors present a case for offering biopsy to all children with suspected DIPG. They also present their standard operative techniques for image-guided, frameless stereotactic biopsy.

Full access

Jason S. Hauptman, Antonio A. F. DeSalles, Randall Espinoza, Mark Sedrak and Warren Ishida

Object

The goal of this study was to evaluate the definition of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), review the literature regarding deep brain stimulation (DBS) for TRD, and identify potential anatomical and functional targets for future widespread clinical application.

Methods

A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine the current status of DBS for TRD, with an emphasis on the scientific support for various implantation sites.

Results

The definition of TRD is presented, as is its management scheme. The rationale behind using DBS for depression is reviewed. Five potential targets have been identified in the literature: ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens, subgenual cingulate cortex (area 25), inferior thalamic peduncle, rostral cingulate cortex (area 24a), and lateral habenula. Deep brain stimulation electrodes thus far have been implanted and activated in only the first 3 of these structures in humans. These targets have proven to be safe and effective, albeit in a small number of cases.

Conclusions

Surgical intervention for TRD in the form of DBS is emerging as a viable treatment alternative to existing modalities. Although the studies reported thus far have small sample sizes, the results appear to be promising. Various surgical targets, such as the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior thalamic peduncle, and nucleus accumbens, have been shown to be safe and to lead to beneficial effects with various stimulation parameters. Further studies with larger patient groups are required to adequately assess the safety and efficacy of these targets, as well as the optimal stimulation parameters and long-term effects.

Restricted access

Jason S. Hauptman, Andrew Dadour, Taemin Oh, Christine B. Baca, Barbara G. Vickrey, Stefanie D. Vassar, Raman Sankar, Noriko Salamon, Harry V. Vinters and Gary W. Mathern

Object

Low income, government insurance, and minority status are associated with delayed treatment for neurosurgery patients. Less is known about the influence of referral location and how socioeconomic factors and referral patterns evolve over time. For pediatric epilepsy surgery patients at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), this study determined how referral location and sociodemographic features have evolved over 25 years.

Methods

Children undergoing epilepsy neurosurgery at UCLA (453 patients) were classified by location of residence and compared with clinical epilepsy and sociodemographic factors.

Results

From 1986 to 2010, referrals from Southern California increased (+33%) and referrals from outside of California decreased (−19%). Over the same period, the number of patients with preferred provider organization (PPO) and health maintenance organization (HMO) insurance increased (+148% and +69%, respectively) and indemnity insurance decreased (−96%). Likewise, the number of Hispanics (+117%) and Asians (100%) increased and Caucasians/whites decreased (−24%). The number of insurance companies decreased from 52 carriers per 100 surgical patients in 1986–1990 to 19 per 100 in 2006–2010. Patients living in the Eastern US had a younger age at surgery (−46%), shorter intervals from seizure onset to referral for evaluation (−28%) and from presurgical evaluation to surgery (−61%) compared with patients from Southern California. The interval from seizure onset to evaluation was shorter (−33%) for patients from Los Angeles County compared with those living in non-California Western US states.

Conclusions

Referral locations evolved over 25 years at UCLA, with more cases coming from local regions; the percentage of minority patients also increased. The interval from seizures onset to surgery was shortest for patients living farthest from UCLA but still within the US. Geographic location and race/ethnicity was not associated with differences in becoming seizure free after epilepsy surgery in children.

Free access

Rishi R. Lall, Rohan R. Lall, Jason S. Hauptman, Carlos Munoz, George R. Cybulski, Tyler Koski, Aruna Ganju, Richard G. Fessler and Zachary A. Smith

Spine surgery carries an inherent risk of damage to critical neural structures. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is frequently used to improve the safety of spine surgery by providing real-time assessment of neural structures at risk. Evidence-based guidelines for safe and efficacious use of IONM are lacking and its use is largely driven by surgeon preference and medicolegal issues. Due to this lack of standardization, the preoperative sign-in serves as a critical opportunity for 3-way discussion between the neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, and neuromonitoring team regarding the necessity for and goals of IONM in the ensuing case. This analysis contains a review of commonly used IONM modalities including somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, spontaneous or free-running electromyography, triggered electromyography, and combined multimodal IONM. For each modality the methodology, interpretation, and reported sensitivity and specificity for neurological injury are addressed. This is followed by a discussion of important IONM-related issues to include in the preoperative checklist, including anesthetic protocol, warning criteria for possible neurological injury, and consideration of what steps to take in response to a positive alarm. The authors conclude with a cost-effectiveness analysis of IONM, and offer recommendations for IONM use during various forms of spine surgery, including both complex spine and minimally invasive procedures, as well as lower-risk spinal operations.

Free access

Christopher C. Young, John R. Williams, Abdullah H. Feroze, Margaret McGrath, Ali C. Ravanpay, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Jeffrey G. Ojemann and Jason S. Hauptman

Functional hemispherectomy/hemispherotomy is a disconnection procedure for severe medically refractory epilepsy where the seizure foci diffusely localize to one hemisphere. It is an improvement on anatomical hemispherectomy and was first performed by Rasmussen in 1974. Less invasive surgical approaches and refinements have been made to improve seizure freedom and minimize surgical morbidity and complications. Key anatomical structures that are disconnected include the 1) internal capsule and corona radiata, 2) mesial temporal structures, 3) insula, 4) corpus callosum, 5) parietooccipital connection, and 6) frontobasal connection. A stepwise approach is indicated to ensure adequate disconnection and prevent seizure persistence or recurrence. In young pediatric patients, careful patient selection and modern surgical techniques have resulted in > 80% seizure freedom and very good functional outcome. In this report, the authors summarize the history of hemispherectomy and its development and present a graphical guide for this anatomically challenging procedure. The use of the osteoplastic flap to improve outcome and the management of hydrocephalus are discussed.