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Jasmine A. Thum

It is not possible to capture all the depth that composes Dr. Linda Liau: chair of the Neurosurgery Department at the University of California, Los Angeles; second woman to chair a neurosurgery program in the United States; first woman to chair the American Board of Neurological Surgery; first woman president of the Western Neurosurgical Society; and one of only a handful of neurosurgeons elected to the National Academy of Medicine. Her childhood and family history alone could fascinate several chapters of her life’s biography. Nonetheless, this brief biography hopes to capture the challenges, triumphs, cultural norms, and spirit that have shaped Dr. Liau’s experience as a successful leader, scientist, and neurosurgeon. This is a rare story. It describes the rise of not only an immigrant within neurosurgery—not unlike other giants in the field, Drs. Robert Spetzler, Jacques Marcos, Ossama Al-Mefty, and a handful of other contemporaries—but also another type of minority in neurosurgery: a woman.

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Jasmine A. Thum, Diana Chang, Nalini Tata, and Linda M. Liau


In 2008, a Women in Neurosurgery Committee white paper called for increased women applicants and decreased women’s attrition in neurosurgery. However, contributing factors (work-life balance, lack of female leadership, workplace gender inequality) have not been well characterized; therefore, specific actions cannot be implemented to improve these professional hurdles. This study provides an update on the experiences of neurosurgeons in 2020 with these historical challenges.


An anonymous online survey was sent to all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)–accredited US neurosurgical programs, examining demographics and experiences with mentorship, family life, fertility, and workplace conduct.


A total of 115 respondents (64 men, 51 women; age range 25–67 years) had trained at 49 different US residencies. Mentorship rates were very high among men and women in medical school and residency. However, women were significantly more likely than men to have a female mentor in residency. During residency, 33% of women versus 44% of men had children, and significantly fewer women interested in having a child were able to do so in residency, compared to men. Significantly more women than men had a child only during a nonclinical year (56.3% vs 19.0%, respectively). Thirty-nine percent of women and 25% of men reported difficulty conceiving. The major difficulty for men was stress, whereas women reported the physical challenges of pregnancy itself (workplace teratogens, morning sickness, etc.). Failed birth rates peaked during residency (0.33) versus those before (0.00) and after residency (0.25).

Women (80%) experience microaggressions in the workplace significantly more than men (36%; p < 0.001). Ninety-five percent of macro-/microaggressions toward female neurosurgeons were about their gender, compared to 9% of those toward men (p < 0.001). The most common overall perpetrators were senior male residents and attendings, followed by male patients (against women) and female nurses or midlevel providers (against men).


Accurate depictions of neurosurgery experiences and open discussions of the potential impacts of gender may allow for 1) decreased attrition due to more accurate expectations and 2) improved characterization of gender differences in neurosurgery so the profession can work to address gender inequality.

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Jasmine A. Thum DiCesare, David J. Segar, Brian V. Nahed, and Maya Babu

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Irene Say, Tianyi Niu, Jasmine A. Thum, Mark M. Archie, David C. Chen, and Daniel C. Lu

The lateral approach to the spine is generally well tolerated, but reports of debilitating injury to the lumbar plexus, iliac vessels, ureter, and abdominal viscera are increasingly recognized, likely related to the lack of direct visualization of these nearby structures. To minimize this complication profile, the authors describe here a novel, minimally invasive, endoscope-assisted technique for the LLIF and evaluate its clinical feasibility. Seven consecutive endoscope-assisted lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedures by the senior authors were reviewed for the incidence of approach-related complications. One patient had a postoperative approach-related complication. This patient developed transient ipsilateral thigh hip flexion weakness that resolved spontaneously by the 3-month follow-up. No patient experienced visceral, urological, or vascular injury, and no patient sustained a permanent neurological injury related to the procedure. The authors’ preliminary experience suggests that this endoscope-assisted LLIF technique may be clinically feasible to mitigate vascular, urological, and visceral injury, especially in patients with previous abdominal surgery, anomalous anatomy, and revision operations. It provides direct visualization of at-risk structures without significant additional operative time. A larger series is needed to determine whether it reduces the incidence of lumbar plexopathy or visceral injury compared with traditional lateral approaches.