The authors report the cases of 2 young male patients (aged 16 and 26 years) with dystonic cerebral palsy of unknown origin, who developed status dystonicus, an acute and persistent combination of generalized dystonia and chorea. Both patients developed status dystonicus after undergoing general anesthesia, and in 1 case, after administration of metoclopramide. In attempting to control this acute hyperkinetic movement disorder, multiple medication trials failed in both cases and patients required prolonged intubation and sedation with propofol. Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (4 and 2 months after the onset of symptoms in the first and second case, respectively) produced immediate resolution of the hyperkinetic movement disorder in each case. Deep brain stimulation provided persistent suppression of the dystonic movement potential after a follow-up of 30 and 34 months, respectively, as demonstrated by the reemergence of severe dystonia during the end of battery life of the implantable pulse generators that was readily controlled by exchange of the generators in each case.
Diana Apetauerova, Clemens M. Schirmer, Jay L. Shils, Janet Zani and Jeffrey E. Arle
Jeffrey E. Arle, Diana Apetauerova, Janet Zani, D. Vedran Deletis, Dana L. Penney, Daniel Hoit, Christine Gould and Jay L. Shils
Since the initial 1991 report by Tsubokawa et al., stimulation of the M1 region of cortex has been used to treat chronic pain conditions and a variety of movement disorders.
A Medline search of the literature published between 1991 and the beginning of 2007 revealed 459 cases in which motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was used. Of these, 72 were related to a movement disorder. More recently, up to 16 patients specifically with Parkinson disease were treated with MCS, and a variety of results were reported. In this report the authors describe 4 patients who were treated with extradural MCS.
Although there were benefits seen within the first 6 months in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III scores (decreased by 60%), tremor was only modestly managed with MCS in this group, and most benefits seen initially were lost by the end of 12 months.
Although there have been some positive findings using MCS for Parkinson disease, a larger study may be needed to better determine if it should be pursued as an alternative surgical treatment to DBS.