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James T. Bennett, Jane S. Hoashi, Robert J. Ames, Jeff S. Kimball, Joshua M. Pahys and Amer F. Samdani

Object

Several studies of the outcomes of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with thoracolumbar and lumbar curves after treatment with posterior pedicle screws have been reported, but most of these studies reported only 2-year follow-up. The authors analyzed the radiographic and clinical outcomes of patients with thoracolumbar and lumbar curves treated with posterior pedicle screws after 5 years of follow-up.

Methods

A multicenter database was retrospectively queried to identify patients with AIS who underwent spinal fusion for Lenke 3C, 5C, and 6C curves. Radiographs from the following times were compared: preoperative, first follow-up visit, 1-year follow-up visit, 2-year follow-up visit, and 5-year follow-up visit. Chart review included scoliometer measurements, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)–22 questionnaires, and complications requiring return to the operating room.

Results

Among 26 patients with Lenke 3C, 5C, and 6C curves, the mean (± SD) age was 14.6 ± 2.1 years. From the time of the preoperative radiographs to the 5-year follow-up radiographs, there was a statistically significant improvement in the mean coronal lumbar Cobb angles (p < 0.0001), and from the time of the first postoperative radiographs to the 5-year follow-up radiographs, the lumbar curve remained stable (p = 0.14). From the time of the preoperative radiographs to the 5-year follow-up radiographs, there was a statistically significant improvement in the mean coronal thoracic Cobb angles (p < 0.0001), and from the time of the first postoperative radiographs to the 5-year follow-up radiographs, the thoracic curve remained stable (p = 0.10). From the first postoperative visit to the 5-year follow-up visit, the thoracic kyphosis (T5–12) remained stable (p = 0.10), and from the time of the preoperative radiographs to the 5-year follow-up radiographs, the lumbar lordosis (T-12 to top of sacrum) remained stable (p = 0.44). From the preoperative visit to the 5-year follow-up visit, the coronal balance improved significantly (p < 0.05) and remained stable from the first postoperative visit to the 5-year follow-up visit (p = 0.20). The SRS-22 total scores improved significantly from before surgery to 5 years after surgery (p < 0.0001). No patients required reoperation because of complications.

Conclusions

Correction of the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes in this cohort of patients was maintained from the first follow-up measurements to 5 years after surgery. In addition, at 5 years after surgery total SRS-22 scores and inclinometer readings were improved from preoperative scores and measurements.