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James L. Stone

✓ Paul Broca (1824–1880) was a well-known French surgeon-anthropologist-neurologist. Best known for his work on cerebral cortical localization and speech mechanisms, Broca also carefully worked out skull and scalp localization for underlying cortical regions. In 1871, Broca treated a man who had sustained a scalp laceration from a blow to the head without loss of consciousness or skull fracture. The patient exhibited a nonfluent aphasia about 1 month after injury and became progressively obtunded and eventually comatose. Suspecting an intracranial abscess, Broca trephined at the region of the left third frontal convolution and drained an epidural abscess. The patient improved transiently but died a few days later. Autopsy showed a left-sided, predominantly frontal purulent meningoencephalitis. Broca's other neurosurgical contributions included various surgical cases, methods for scalp localization of the cerebral convolutions, extensive studies of skull and brain abnormalities, thermoencephalography, and the stimulation of younger surgical colleagues and neurologists to make practical use of cerebral localization.

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Prasad S. S. V. Vannemreddy and James L. Stone

Fifty years before a report on the complete bitemporal lobectomy syndrome in primates, known as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome, was published, 2 talented investigators working at the University College in London, England—neurologist Sanger Brown and physiologist Edward Schäfer—also made this discovery. The title of their work was “An investigation into the functions of the occipital and temporal lobes of the monkey’s brain,” and it involved excisional brain surgery in 12 monkeys. They were particularly interested in the then-disputed primary cortical locations relating to vision and hearing. However, following extensive bilateral temporal lobe excisions in 2 monkeys, they noted peculiar behavior including apparent loss of memory and intelligence resembling “idiocy.” These investigators recognized most of the behavioral findings that later came to be known as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. However, they were working within the late-19th-century framework of cerebral cortical localizations of basic motor and sensory functions.

Details of the Brown and Schäfer study and a glimpse of the neurological thinking of that period is presented. In the decades following the pivotal work of Klüver and Bucy in the late 1930s, in which they used a more advanced neurosurgical technique, tools of behavioral observations, and analysis of brain sections after euthanasia, investigators have elaborated the full components of the clinical syndrome and the extent of their resections.

Other neuroscientists sought to isolate and determine the specific temporal neocortical, medial temporal, and deep limbic structures responsible for various visual and complex behavioral deficits. No doubt, Klüver and Bucy’s contribution led to a great expansion in attention given to the limbic system’s role in action, perception, emotion, and affect—a tide that continues to the present time.

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James L. Stone, Vimal Patel and Julian E. Bailes

The authors trace the Oxford, England, roots of World War II (WWII)–related advances in head injury management, the biomechanics of concussion and brain injury, and postwar delineation of pathological findings in severe concussion and diffuse brain injury in man. The prominent figure in these developments was the charismatic and innovative Harvey Cushing–trained neurosurgeon Sir Hugh Cairns. Cairns, who was to closely emulate Cushing's surgical and scholarly approach, is credited with saving thousands of lives during WWII by introducing and implementing innovative programs such as helmets for motorcyclists, mobile neurosurgical units near battle zones, and the military usage of penicillin. In addition, he inspired and taught a generation of neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neurological nurses in the care of brain and spinal cord injuries at Oxford's Military Hospital for Head Injuries. During this time Cairns also trained the first full-time female neurosurgeon. Pivotal in supporting animal research demonstrating the critical role of acceleration in the causation of concussion, Cairns recruited the physicist Hylas Holbourn, whose research implicated rotary acceleration and shear strains as particularly damaging. Cairns' work in military medicine and head injury remain highly influential in efforts to mitigate and manage brain injury.

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James L. Stone, Terry Lichtor and Robert M. Crowell

✓ A patient with trigeminal neuralgia caused by a tortuous and ectatic vertebrobasilar artery is presented. He was treated with microvascular decompression using a fine silicone sling sutured to the dura over the petrous pyramid. The technical details are described.

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Scellig S. D. Stone and James T. Rutka

The management of medically refractory epilepsy poses both a valuable therapeutic opportunity and a formidable technical challenge to epilepsy surgeons. Recent decades have produced significant advancements in the capabilities and availability of adjunctive tools in epilepsy surgery. In particular, image-based neuronavigation and electrophysiological neuromonitoring represent versatile and informative modalities that can assist a surgeon in performing safe and effective resections. In the present article the authors discuss these 2 subjects with reference to how they can be applied and what evidence supports their use. As technologies evolve with demonstrated and potential utility, it is important for all clinicians who deal with epilepsy to understand where neuronavigation and neuromonitoring stand in the present and what avenues for improvement exist for the future.

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James L. Stone, Aditi Gulabani, Gleb Gorelick, Siddharth N. K. Vannemreddy and Prasad S. S. V. Vannemreddy


Halo orthosis placement is a common neurosurgical procedure for the treatment of cervical spine injuries. Frontal sinus puncture by the anterior pins may occur using standard techniques, and up to 30% are dissatisfied with forehead scarring, especially women and African Americans.


The authors describe a frontolateral (FL) anterior pin site placement supported by high-resolution CT scan skull thickness measurements. The standard supraorbital (SO) pin site is several centimeters above the lateral orbit, whereas the FL pin site is 2–3 cm posterolateral to the SO site. Frontolateral placement is just anterior to the temporalis muscle close to a triangular anterior projection of the temporal hairline. For quantitative information on skull thickness at the SO and FT pin sites, thin 0.625-mm CT scan measurements of the outer table, diploic space, and inner table were obtained in 40 adults (80 sites).


The mean values for total skull thickness at the SO and FT sites were not significantly different. The inner table was significantly thicker at the FL site in both males and females, buttressed by the nearby greater sphenoid wing. The mean total skull thickness was significantly less in females than in males, but the values were not significantly different at the SO and FL sites.


The FL and SO anterior pin sites are comparable with respect to skull thickness CT measurements, with a significantly thicker inner table at the FL site. In the senior author's experience, the FL anterior pin site yielded secure fixation without skull perforation, neurovascular injury, or propensity to infection. The cosmetic result of the FL site is more acceptable, and the authors recommend its general usage be adopted.

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Julian E. Bailes, Vimal Patel, Hamad Farhat, Brian Sindelar and James Stone