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  • Author or Editor: James E. Cottrell x
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John Hartung and James E. Cottrell

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John Hartung and James E. Cottrell

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James E. Cottrell, Katie Patel, Herman Turndorf and Joseph Ransohoff

✓ Because of the ability of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to dilate cerebral blood vessels, intracranial pressure (ICP) should increase with its use. In patients with vascular intracranial tumors following SNP (0.01%) infusion, ICP increased from 14.58 ± 1.85 to 27.61 ± 3.33 torr (p > 0.0005) and cerebral perfusion pressure decreased from 89.32 ± 3.5 to 43.23 ± 4.60 torr (p < 0.0005) when the mean arterial pressure had reduced by 33%. These results suggest that SNP not be used in patients with raised ICP unless previous measures have been taken to improve intracranial compliance.

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James E. Cottrell, Bhagwandas Gupta, Harry Rappaport, Herman Turndorf, Joseph Ransohoff and Eugene S. Flamm

✓ Nitroglycerin was given intravenously to five anesthetized, hyperventilated (PaCO2 25 to 30 torr) patients during craniotomy, to facilitate surgery by creating a relatively bloodless field, and to decrease the potential need for blood transfusion. A subarachnoid screw and an indwelling radial artery catheter were inserted to monitor intracranial pressure (LCP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). As MAP decreased from 104.4 ± 4.0 (SE) to 69.0 ± 1.8 torr, ICP increased from 14.2 ± 0.7 (SEM) to 30.8 ± 1.1 torr. Cerebral perfusion pressure decreased from 90.2 ± 3.6 (SEM) to 38.2 ± 2.3 torr (p < 0.0005). We attribute this nitroglycerin-induced ICP increase to capacitance vessel dilation within the relatively noncompliant cranial cavity, with subsequent cerebral blood volume increase.