Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts have not been widely used for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) because of the difficulty of placing a shunt into normal or small-sized ventricles. The authors report their experience with stereotactic placement of VP shunts for IIH.
The authors reviewed the clinical records of all patients in whom stereotaxis was used to guide the placement of a VP shunt for IIH at their institution. All shunts were placed using stereotactic guidance to target the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle. Patients were contacted at a mean postoperative interval of 15.1 months. No patients were lost to follow up.
The authors identified 13 patients who underwent placement of a stereotactically guided VP shunt for IIH over a 6-year period. A trial of either acetazolamide or steroid therapy had failed in all patients. Prior surgical treatments included optic nerve sheath fenestrations in seven patients and cerebrospinal fluid diversionary procedures, other than stereotactic VP shunt procedures, in nine patients. Twelve patients reported excellent or good durable symptomatic relief at the time of follow up. No patient suffered progression of visual deficits. Four patients experienced persistent headaches following the procedure. Three patients required a revision of the VP shunt for technical failure.
Stereotactically guided VP shunt placement is an effective and durable treatment option in many cases of IIH that are refractory to more traditional medical and surgical approaches.