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James Feghali, Abhishek Gami, Sarah Rapaport, Jaimin Patel, Adham M. Khalafallah, Sakibul Huq, Debraj Mukherjee, Rafael J. Tamargo, and Judy Huang

OBJECTIVE

The 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) is a practical tool that can be used to estimate frailty by measuring five accessible factors: functional status, history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and hypertension. The authors aimed to validate the utility of mFI-5 for predicting endovascular and microsurgical treatment outcomes in patients with unruptured aneurysms.

METHODS

A prospectively maintained database of consecutive patients with unruptured aneurysm who were treated with clip placement or endovascular therapy was used. Because patient age is an important predictor of treatment outcomes in patients with unruptured aneurysm, mFI-5 was supplemented with age to create the age-supplemented mFI-5 (AmFI-5). Associations of scores on these indices with major complications (symptomatic ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, or surgical site infection requiring reoperation) were evaluated. Validation was carried out with the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database (2006–2017).

RESULTS

The institutional database included 275 patients (88 underwent clip placement, and 187 underwent endovascular treatment). Multivariable analysis of the surgical cohort showed that major complication was significantly associated with mFI-5 (OR 2.0, p = 0.046) and AmFI-5 (OR 1.9, p = 0.028) scores. Significant predictive accuracy for major complications was provided by mFI-5 (c-statistic = 0.709, p = 0.011) and AmFI-5 (c-statistic = 0.720, p = 0.008). The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System (ASA) provided poor discrimination (area under the curve = 0.541, p = 0.618) that was significantly less than that of mFI-5 (p = 0.023) and AmFI-5 (p = 0.014). Optimal relative fit was achieved with AmFI-5, which had the lowest Akaike information criterion value. Similar results were obtained after equivalent analysis of the endovascular cohort, with additional significant associations between index scores and length of stay (β = 0.6 and p = 0.009 for mFI-5; β = 0.5 and p = 0.003 for AmFI-5). In 1047 patients who underwent clip placement and were included in the NSQIP database, mFI-5 (p = 0.001) and AmFI-5 (p < 0.001) scores were significantly associated with severe postoperative adverse events and provided greater discrimination (c-statistic = 0.600 and p < 0.001 for mFI-5; c-statistic = 0.610 and p < 0.001 for AmFI-5) than ASA score (c-statistic = 0.580 and p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS

mFI-5 and AmFI-5 represent potential predictors of procedure-related complications in unruptured aneurysm patients. After further validation, integration of these tools into clinical workflows may optimize patients for intervention.

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Bethany Hung, Zach Pennington, Andrew M. Hersh, Andrew Schilling, Jeff Ehresman, Jaimin Patel, Albert Antar, Jose L. Porras, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have suggested the possibility of racial disparities in surgical outcomes for patients undergoing spine surgery, although this has not been thoroughly investigated in those with spinal metastases. Given the increasing prevalence of spinal metastases requiring intervention, knowledge about potential discrepancies in outcomes would benefit overall patient care. The objective in the present study was to investigate whether race was an independent predictor of postoperative complications, nonroutine discharge, and prolonged length of stay (LOS) after surgery for spinal metastasis.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively examined patients at a single comprehensive cancer center who had undergone surgery for spinal metastasis between April 2013 and April 2020. Demographic information, primary pathology, preoperative clinical characteristics, and operative outcomes were collected. Factors achieving p values < 0.15 on univariate regression were entered into a stepwise multivariable logistic regression to generate predictive models. Nonroutine discharge was defined as a nonhome discharge destination and prolonged LOS was defined as LOS greater than the 75th percentile for the entire cohort.

RESULTS

Three hundred twenty-eight patients who had undergone 348 operations were included: 240 (69.0%) White and 108 (31.0%) Black. On univariable analysis, cohorts significantly differed in age (p = 0.02), marital status (p < 0.001), insurance status (p = 0.03), income quartile (p = 0.02), primary tumor type (p = 0.04), and preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, race was an independent predictor for nonroutine discharge: Black patients had significantly higher odds of nonroutine discharge than White patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–3.92, p = 0.005). Older age (AOR 1.06 per year, 95% CI 1.03–1.09, p < 0.001), preoperative KPS score ≤ 70 (AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.93–5.65, p < 0.001), preoperative Frankel grade A–C (AOR 3.48, 95% CI 1.17–10.3, p = 0.02), insurance status (p = 0.005), being unmarried (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35–0.97, p = 0.04), number of levels (AOR 1.17 per level, 95% CI 1.05–1.31, p = 0.004), and thoracic involvement (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.02–2.88, p = 0.04) were also predictive of nonroutine discharge. However, race was not independently predictive of postoperative complications or prolonged LOS. Higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (AOR 1.22 per point, 95% CI 1.04–1.43, p = 0.01), low preoperative KPS score (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.16–2.92, p = 0.01), and number of levels (AOR 1.15 per level, 95% CI 1.05–1.27, p = 0.004) were predictive of complications, while insurance status (p = 0.05), income quartile (p = 0.01), low preoperative KPS score (AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.03–2.72, p = 0.05), and number of levels (AOR 1.16 per level, 95% CI 1.05–1.30, p = 0.004) were predictive of prolonged LOS.

CONCLUSIONS

Race, insurance status, age, baseline functional status, and marital status were all independently associated with nonroutine discharge. This suggests that a combination of socioeconomic factors and functional status, rather than medical comorbidities, may best predict postdischarge disposition in patients treated for spinal metastases. Further investigation in a prospective cohort is merited.

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Andrew M. Hersh, Zach Pennington, Bethany Hung, Jaimin Patel, Earl Goldsborough, Andrew Schilling, James Feghali, Albert Antar, Siddhartha Srivastava, David Botros, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Sheng-Fu Larry Lo, and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

Frailty—the state defined by decreased physiological reserve and increased vulnerability to physiological stress—is exceedingly common in oncology patients. Given the palliative nature of spine metastasis surgery, it is imperative that patients be healthy enough to tolerate the physical insult of surgery. In the present study, the authors compared the association of two frailty metrics and the widely used Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) with postoperative morbidity in spine metastasis patients.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort of patients who underwent operations for spinal metastases at a comprehensive cancer center were identified. Data on patient demographic characteristics, disease state, medical comorbidities, operative details, and postoperative outcomes were collected. Frailty was measured with the modified 5-item frailty index (mFI-5) and metastatic spinal tumor frailty index (MSTFI). Outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS) greater than the 75th percentile of the cohort, nonroutine discharge, and the occurrence of ≥ 1 postoperative complication.

RESULTS

In total, 322 patients were included (mean age 59.5 ± 12 years; 56.9% of patients were male). The mean ± SD LOS was 11.2 ± 9.9 days, 44.5% of patients had nonroutine discharge, and 24.0% experienced ≥ 1 postoperative complication. On multivariable analysis, increased frailty on mFI-5 and MSTFI was independently predictive of all three outcomes: prolonged LOS (OR 1.67 per point, 95% CI 1.06–2.63, p = 0.03; and OR 1.63 per point, 95% CI 1.29–2.05, p < 0.01, respectively), nonroutine discharge (OR 2.65 per point, 95% CI 1.74–4.04, p < 0.01; and OR 1.69 per point, 95% CI 1.36–2.11, p < 0.01), and ≥ 1 complication (OR 1.95 per point, 95% CI 1.23–3.09, p = 0.01; and OR 1.41 per point, 95% CI 1.12–1.77, p < 0.01). CCI was found to be independently predictive of only the occurrence of ≥ 1 postoperative complication (OR 1.45 per point, 95% CI 1.22–1.72, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Frailty measured with either mFI-5 or MSTFI scores was a more robust independent predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes than the more widely used CCI. Both mFI-5 and MSTFI were significantly associated with prolonged LOS, higher complication rates, and nonroutine discharge. Further investigation in a prospective multicenter cohort is merited.