An understanding of normal cerebral autoregulation and its response to pathological derangements is helpful in the diagnosis, monitoring, management, and prognosis of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Pressure autoregulation is the most common approach in testing the effects of mean arterial blood pressure on cerebral blood flow. A gold standard for measuring cerebral pressure autoregulation is not available, and the literature shows considerable disparity in methods. This fact is not surprising given that cerebral autoregulation is more a concept than a physically measurable entity. Alterations in cerebral autoregulation can vary from patient to patient and over time and are critical during the first 4–5 days after injury. An assessment of cerebral autoregulation as part of bedside neuromonitoring in the neurointensive care unit can allow the individualized treatment of secondary injury in a patient with severe TBI. The assessment of cerebral autoregulation is best achieved with dynamic autoregulation methods. Hyperventilation, hyperoxia, nitric oxide and its derivates, and erythropoietin are some of the therapies that can be helpful in managing cerebral autoregulation. In this review the authors summarize the most important points related to cerebral pressure autoregulation in TBI as applied in clinical practice, based on the literature as well as their own experience.
Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Jaime Gasco, Haring J. W. Nauta, DaviD O. Okonkwo and Claudia S. Robertson
Mark A. Mahan, Jaime Gasco, David B. Mokhtee and Justin M. Brown
Surgical transposition of the ulnar nerve to alleviate entrapment may cause otherwise normal structures to become new sources of nerve compression. Recurrent or persistent neuropathy after anterior transposition is commonly attributable to a new distal compression. The authors sought to clarify the anatomical relationship of the ulnar nerve to the common aponeurosis of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles following anterior transposition of the nerve.
The intermuscular septa of the proximal forearm were explored in 26 fresh cadaveric specimens. The fibrous septa and common aponeurotic insertions of the flexor-pronator muscle mass were evaluated in relation to the ulnar nerve, with particular attention to the effect of transposition upon the nerve in this region.
An intermuscular aponeurosis associated with the FCU and FDS muscles was present in all specimens. Transposition consistently resulted in angulation of the nerve during elbow flexion when this fascial septum was not released. The proximal site at which the nerve began to traverse this fascial structure was found to be an average of 3.9 cm (SD 0.7 cm) from the medial epicondyle.
The common aponeurosis encountered between the FDS and FCU muscles represents a potential site of posttransposition entrapment, which may account for a subset of failed anterior transpositions. Exploration of this region with release of this structure is recommended to provide an unconstrained distal course for a transposed ulnar nerve.
Sujit S. Prabhu, Jaime Gasco, Sudhakar Tummala, Jefrey S. Weinberg and Ganesh Rao
The object of this study was to describe the utility and safety of using a single probe for combined intraoperative navigation and subcortical mapping in an intraoperative MR (iMR) imaging environment during brain tumor resection.
The authors retrospectively reviewed those patients who underwent resection in the iMR imaging environment, as well as functional electrophysiological monitoring with continuous motor evoked potential (MEP) and direct subcortical mapping combined with diffusion tensor imaging tractography.
As a navigational tool the monopolar probe used was safe and accurate. Positive subcortical fiber MEPs were obtained in 10 (83%) of the 12 cases. In 10 patients in whom subcortical MEPs were recorded, the mean stimulus intensity was 10.4 ± 5.2 mA and the mean distance from the probe tip to the corticospinal tract (CST) was 7.4 ± 4.5 mm. There was a trend toward worsening neurological deficits if the distance to the CST was short, and a small minimum stimulation threshold was recorded indicating close proximity of the CST to the resection margins. Gross-total resection (95%–100% tumor removal) was achieved in 11 cases (92%), whereas 1 patient (8%) had at least a 90% tumor resection. At the end of 3 months, 2 patients (17%) had persistent neurological deficits.
The monopolar probe can be safely implemented in an iMR imaging environment both for navigation and stimulation purposes during the resection of intrinsic brain tumors. In this study there was a trend toward worsening neurological deficits if the distance from the probe to the CST was short (< 5 mm) indicating close proximity of the resection cavity to the CST. This technology can be used in the iMR imaging environment as a surgical adjunct to minimize adverse neurological outcomes.
Jaime Gasco, Brodus Franklin, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Gerald A. Campbell, Mahmoud Eltorky and Paul Salinas
Angioleiomyomas are benign neoplasms most often located in the subcutaneous tissue of middle-aged individuals and usually confined to the subcuticular and deep dermal layers of the lower extremities. An intracranial site for this tumor is exceedingly rare, with very few reports documenting locations in the neuraxis. To the authors' knowledge the present case represents the first reported instance of an infratentorial angioleiomyoma. The authors conducted a review of selected English-language papers published since 1960 describing well-documented cases of intracranial vascular leiomyomas, with detailed information on the clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, and particulars of surgical management in each case.