Josef Novotny Jr., Jagdish P. Bhatnagar, Ajay Niranjan, Mubina A. Quader, M. Saiful Huq, Greg Bednarz, John C. Flickinger, Douglas Kondziolka and L. Dade Lunsford
The recently introduced Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) Perfexion is an entirely new system with a different beam geometry compared with the LGK 4C. The new Perfexion system has 192 cobalt-60 sources that are fixed on 8 sectors (each sector has 24 sources). Each sector can be moved independently of the others and can be set to 1 of 5 different positions: 3 positions defining collimator sizes of 4, 8, and 16 mm; an off position (sources are blocked); and a home position. The purpose of this study is to compare the dosimetric characteristics of the GK 4C and the Perfexion models. This comparison is important especially for the treatment of functional disorders when only a single shot with the 4- or 8-mm collimator is used.
A 160-mm-diameter spherical polystyrene phantom was used for all measurements and calculations. The irradiation geometry consisted of the placement of a single shot at the center of this phantom. Comparisons were made among different dosimetric parameters obtained from calculations performed using Leksell GammaPlan v. 8.0 and measurements performed using film dosimetry. The dosimetric parameters investigated were dose profiles for all collimators in all 3 stereotactic planes (x, y, and z) including the full width at half maximum and the penumbra for each profile, cumulative dose–volume histograms, the volume encompassed by the 50% isodose surface, the mean doses delivered to a defined matrix volume, and relative output factors for all collimator sizes.
There was excellent agreement between the dosimetric parameters of GK 4C and Perfexion for the 4- and 8-mm collimators.
The results of this study suggest that consistent treatments of functional disorders will be delivered using either GK 4C or Perfexion.
Huai-che Yang, Hideyuki Kano, Nasir Raza Awan, L. Dade Lunsford, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger, Josef Novotny Jr., Jagdish P. Bhatnagar and Douglas Kondziolka
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an important management option for patients with small- and medium-sized vestibular schwannomas. To assess the potential role of SRS in larger tumors, the authors reviewed their recent experience.
Between 1994 and 2008, 65 patients with vestibular schwannomas between 3 and 4 cm in one extracanalicular maximum diameter (median tumor volume 9 ml) underwent Gamma Knife surgery. Seventeen patients (26%) had previously undergone resection.
The median follow-up duration was 36 months (range 1–146 months). At the first planned imaging follow-up at 6 months, 5 tumors (8%) were slightly expanded, 53 (82%) were stable in size, and 7 (11%) were smaller. Two patients (3%) underwent resection within 6 months due to progressive symptoms. Two years later, with 63 tumors overall after the 2 post-SRS resections, 16 tumors (25%) had a volume reduction of more than 50%, 22 (35%) tumors had a volume reduction of 10–50%, 18 (29%) were stable in volume (volume change < 10%), and 7 (11%) had larger volumes (5 of the 7 patients underwent resection and 1 of the 7 underwent repeat SRS). Eighteen (82%) of 22 patients with serviceable hearing before SRS still had serviceable hearing after SRS more than 2 years later. Three patients (5%) developed symptomatic hydrocephalus and underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. In 4 patients (6%) trigeminal sensory dysfunction developed, and in 1 patient (2%) mild facial weakness (House-Brackmann Grade II) developed after SRS. In univariate analysis, patients who had a previous resection (p = 0.010), those with a tumor volume exceeding 10 ml (p = 0.05), and those with Koos Grade 4 tumors (p = 0.02) had less likelihood of tumor control after SRS.
Although microsurgical resection remains the primary management choice in patients with low comorbidities, most vestibular schwannomas with a maximum diameter less than 4 cm and without significant mass effect can be managed satisfactorily with Gamma Knife radiosurgery.