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Jae Hyo Park, Jeong Eun Kim, Seung Hun Sheen, Cheol Kyu Jung, Bae Ju Kwon, O-Ki Kwon, Chang Wan Oh, Moon Hee Han and Dae Hee Han

Object

Experience with intraarterial abciximab for the treatment of thromboembolism during endovascular coil embolization is limited. The authors report the outcome of intraarterial abciximab use, with an emphasis on fatal hemorrhagic complications.

Methods

Between March 2003 and May 2006, the authors treated 606 aneurysms by using endovascular coil embolization, and in 32 (5.3%) of these aneurysms (31 patients) an intraarterial thrombus developed. Sixteen of these aneurysms were ruptured and the other 16 were unruptured. Arterial thrombi were totally occlusive in 3 and partially occlusive in the remaining 29 cases. Intraarterial abciximab was administered at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml as a bolus of 4–15 mg over a period of 15–30 minutes.

Results

Complete thrombolysis was achieved in 17 (53%) and partial thrombolysis in 15 (47%) of 32 lesions. Twenty-eight patients (90.3%) were asymptomatic after abciximab thrombolysis, but 3 had postprocedural rebleeding that occurred after abciximab treatment; all of these patients had recently experienced an aneurysm rupture. Of these patients, 1 displayed severe thrombocytopenia and the other 2 showed a > 25% reduction in platelet count after abciximab treatment.

Conclusions

Intraarterial abciximab is effective for the treatment of thromboembolic complications that occur during intracranial aneurysm coil insertion. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to prevent potentially fatal complications such as thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage, especially in patients with a ruptured aneurysm.

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Wendy Guo, Bang-Bon Koo, Jae-Hun Kim, Rafeeque A. Bhadelia, Dae-Won Seo, Seung Bong Hong, Eun Yeon Joo, Seunghoon Lee, Jung-Il Lee, Kyung Rae Cho and Young-Min Shon

OBJECTIVE

The anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) is a common target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy. However, no atlas-based optimal DBS (active contacts) target within the ATN has been definitively identified. The object of this retrospective study was to analyze the relationship between the active contact location and seizure reduction to establish an atlas-based optimal target for ATN DBS.

METHODS

From among 25 patients who had undergone ATN DBS surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy between 2016 and 2018, those who had follow-up evaluations for more than 1 year were eligible for study inclusion. After an initial stimulation period of 6 months, patients were classified as responsive (≥ 50% median decrease in seizure frequency) or nonresponsive (< 50% median decrease in seizure frequency) to treatment. Stimulation parameters and/or active contact positions were adjusted in nonresponsive patients, and their responsiveness was monitored for at least 1 year. Postoperative CT scans were coregistered nonlinearly with preoperative MR images to determine the center coordinate and atlas-based anatomical localizations of all active contacts in the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) 152 space.

RESULTS

Nineteen patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were followed up for at least a year following bilateral DBS electrode implantation targeting the ATN. Active contacts located more adjacent to the center of gravity of the anterior half of the ATN volume, defined as the anterior center (AC), were associated with greater seizure reduction than those not in this location. Intriguingly, the initially nonresponsive patients could end up with much improved seizure reduction by adjusting the active contacts closer to the AC at the final postoperative follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with stimulation targeting the AC may have a favorable seizure reduction. Moreover, the authors were able to obtain additional good outcomes after electrode repositioning in the initially nonresponsive patients. Purposeful and strategic trajectory planning to target this optimal region may predict favorable outcomes of ATN DBS.