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Ho Jun Yi, Jae Hoon Sung, Dong Hoon Lee, Seung Ho Yang, and Jae Taek Hong

OBJECTIVE

Volume perfusion CT (VPCT) with added CT angiography (CTA)–like reconstruction from VPCT source data (VPCTA) can reveal multiple intracranial parameters. The authors examined the usefulness of VPCTA in terms of reducing the in-hospital time delay for mechanical thrombectomy.

METHODS

A total of 180 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy at the authors’ institution between January 2014 and March 2017 were divided into 2 groups: a CTA-based thrombectomy decision group (group 1: CTA) and a VPCTA-based decision group (group 2: VPCTA). Multiple time interval categories (from symptom onset to groin puncture, from hospital arrival to groin puncture, procedure time, from symptom onset to reperfusion, and from hospital arrival to reperfusion) were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and the modified Rankin Scale, and radiological results were evaluated by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score.

RESULTS

In all of the time interval categories except for procedure time, the VPCTA group showed a significantly shorter in-hospital time delay during the prethrombectomy period than did the CTA group. The 3-month modified Rankin Scale score was significantly lower in the VPCTA group (2.8) compared with the CTA group (3.5) (p = 0.003). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in the other clinical and radiological outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with CTA, VPCTA significantly reduced the in-hospital time delay during the prethrombectomy period.

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Ho Jun Yi, Jae Hoon Sung, Dong Hoon Lee, Seung Ho Yang, and Jae Taek Hong

OBJECTIVE

Volume perfusion CT (VPCT) with added CT angiography (CTA)–like reconstruction from VPCT source data (VPCTA) can reveal multiple intracranial parameters. The authors examined the usefulness of VPCTA in terms of reducing the in-hospital time delay for mechanical thrombectomy.

METHODS

A total of 180 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy at the authors’ institution between January 2014 and March 2017 were divided into 2 groups: a CTA-based thrombectomy decision group (group 1: CTA) and a VPCTA-based decision group (group 2: VPCTA). Multiple time interval categories (from symptom onset to groin puncture, from hospital arrival to groin puncture, procedure time, from symptom onset to reperfusion, and from hospital arrival to reperfusion) were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and the modified Rankin Scale, and radiological results were evaluated by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score.

RESULTS

In all of the time interval categories except for procedure time, the VPCTA group showed a significantly shorter in-hospital time delay during the prethrombectomy period than did the CTA group. The 3-month modified Rankin Scale score was significantly lower in the VPCTA group (2.8) compared with the CTA group (3.5) (p = 0.003). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in the other clinical and radiological outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with CTA, VPCTA significantly reduced the in-hospital time delay during the prethrombectomy period.

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Yang Kwon, Jae Sung Ahn, Sang Ryong Jeon, Jeong Hoon Kim, Chang Jin Kim, Jung Kyo Lee, Byung Duk Kwun, Do Hee Lee, and Sun Young Kim

Object. The authors evaluated whether gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) could be a causative factor in intratumoral bleeding in meningiomas.

Methods. Gamma knife radiosurgery was used in the treatment of 173 meningiomas during a 10-year period. Four patients suffered post-GKS intratumoral hemorrhage. The course in these patients was reviewed.

Four of 173 patients suffered an intratumoral hemorrhage during a follow-up period of 1 to 8 years. The risk of intratumoral bleeding after GKS for meningioma was 2.3%. Intracystic hemorrhage occurred in two patients 1 and 5 years, respectively, after radiosurgery. In the other two cases intratumoral bleeding occurred 2 and 8 years, respectively, after radiosurgery. Histological examination in three cases found no specific findings related to the postradiosurgical changes.

Conclusions. Because the reported risk of spontaneous intratumoral bleeding in meningiomas is 1.3 to 2.7%, the incidence in this series was not unduly high. Radiosurgery itself could not be shown to be a significant factor in the development of the intratumoral bleeding.

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Jae Taek Hong, Tae Hyung Kim, Il Sup Kim, Seung Ho Yang, Jae Hoon Sung, Byung Chul Son, and Sang Won Lee

Object

The aim of this study was to analyze the exact location of the internal carotid artery (ICA) relative to the C-1 lateral mass and describe the effect of age on the tortuosity of the ICA.

Methods

The authors analyzed 641 patients who had undergone CT angiography to evaluate the location of the ICA in relation to the C-1 lateral mass. Each patient was assigned to 1 of 3 age groups (< 41 years, 41–60 years, and > 60 years of age). The degree of lateral positioning of the ICA was classified into 4 groups: Group 1 (lateral to the C-1 lateral mass), Group 2 (lateral half of the lateral mass), Group 3 (medial half of the lateral mass), or Group 4 (medial to the lateral mass). The anteroposterior relationship of the ICA was classified into Group A (posterior to the anterior tubercle) or Group B (anterior to the anterior tubercle). Distances from the ICA to the midline, anterior tubercle, and anterior cortex of the lateral mass were measured. Distances between the lateral margin of the lateral mass and the longus capitis muscle were also evaluated.

Results

The prevalence of the ICA located in front of the lateral mass (Groups 2 and 3) was 47.4% overall. The position of the ICA changes with age due to vessel tortuosity. Only 18.3% of patients in the youngest age group (< 41 years of age) had an ICA in front of the lateral mass (Group 2 or 3 area). However, this percentage increased in the older 2 groups (43.5% in the 41–60 year old group, and 57% in the > 60-year-old age group). The mean distance from the midline to the ICA was 22.6 mm, and the mean distance from the ICA to the C-1 anterior tubercle and the ventral cortex of the lateral mass was 4.7 and 4.5 mm, respectively. Moreover, the ICA is more prone to injury during bicortical C-1 screw placement when the longus capitis muscle is hypotrophic and does not cover the entire ventral surface of the lateral mass.

Conclusions

Elderly patients have a higher incidence of a medially located ICA that may contribute to the risk of injury to the ICA during bicortical C-1 screw or C1–2 transarticular screw placement. Although the small number of reported cases of ICA injury does not allow for determination of a direct relationship with specific anatomical characteristics, the presence of unfavorable anatomy does warrant serious consideration during evaluation for C-1 screw placement in elderly patients.

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Dong-Kyu Jang, Kwan-Sung Lee, Hyoung Kyun Rha, Pil-Woo Huh, Ji-Ho Yang, Ik Seong Park, Jae-Geun Ahn, Jae Hoon Sung, and Young-Min Han

OBJECTIVE

In this study the authors evaluated whether extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery can prevent stroke occurrence and decrease mortality in adult patients with symptomatic moyamoya disease (MMD).

METHODS

The medical records of 249 consecutive adult patients with symptomatic MMD that was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography between 2002 and 2011 at 8 institutions were retrospectively reviewed. The study outcomes of stroke recurrence as a primary event and death during the 6-year follow-up and perioperative complications within 30 days as secondary events were compared between the bypass and medical treatment groups.

RESULTS

The bypass group comprised 158 (63.5%) patients, and the medical treatment group comprised 91 (36.5%) patients. For 249 adult patients with MMD, bypass surgery showed an HR of 0.48 (95% CI 0.27–0.86, p = 0.014) for stroke recurrence calculated by Cox regression analysis. However, for the 153 patients with ischemic MMD, the HR of bypass surgery for stroke recurrence was 1.07 (95% CI 0.43–2.66, p = 0.887). For the 96 patients with hemorrhagic MMD, the multivariable adjusted HR of bypass surgery for stroke recurrence was 0.18 (95% CI 0.06–0.49, p = 0.001). For the treatment modality, indirect bypass and direct bypass (or combined bypass) did not show any significant difference for stroke recurrence, perioperative stroke, or mortality (log rank; p = 0.524, p = 0.828, and p = 0.616, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

During the treatment of symptomatic MMD in adults, bypass surgery reduces stroke recurrence for the hemorrhagic type, but it does not do so for the ischemic type. The best choice of bypass methods in adult patients with MMD is uncertain. In adult ischemic MMD, a prospective randomized study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of bypass surgery to prevent recurrent stroke is necessary.

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Jung-Ho Yun, Do Hoon Kwon, Eun Jung Lee, Do Heui Lee, Jae Sung Ahn, and Byung Duk Kwun

New nidi are rarely found adjacent to the resection margin following treatment for an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), especially in adults. In addition, there are no reports in adults of new nidus formation adjacent to the targeted site of an AVM that angiography has verified to be completely obliterated by radiosurgery. The authors present their experience with recurrent AVMs following AVM radiosurgery in 3 patients whose ages were 9 years, 10 years, and 33 years. None of the patients had been treated with embolization before radiosurgery. Two patients had a history of intracerebral hemorrhage before radiosurgery. New lesions developed around the obliterated nidi in all 3 cases. Angiography performed after the first radiosurgery confirmed complete removal of the nidus in all 3 patients, and new nidus formation was detected 31, 132, and 36 months after the initial GKS. The new lesions were also treated by GKS. Occasionally, in patients with recurrent AVMs, such as those described in this paper, long-term clinical and angiographic follow-up may be required, even if complete occlusion is originally shown on angiograms.

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Ho Jun Yi, Jung Eun Lee, Dong Hoon Lee, Young Il Kim, Chul Bum Cho, Il Sup Kim, Jae Hoon Sung, and Seung Ho Yang

OBJECTIVE

Perilesional edema is a predominant mechanism underlying secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Perilesional edema is characterized by inflammation, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and migration of peripheral immune cells into the brain. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) family pyrin domain–containing 3 protein (NLRP3) is a key component of secondary injury. Pioglitazone regulates NLRP3 and other inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, the role of NLRP3 and the pharmacological effects of pioglitazone were investigated in animal TBI models.

METHODS

Brain contusion was induced in a weight drop model involving 3 groups of mice: C57 BL/6 (sham group), NLRP3 knockout (K/O group), and pioglitazone-treated mice (treatment group). The percentage of brain water content of the 3 groups of mice was compared over a period of time. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence analyses were conducted to investigate NLRP3-related inflammasomes and the effects of pioglitazone in the TBI models.

RESULTS

Brain edema was the highest on day 3 after TBI in the sham group. Brain edema in both the K/O and the treatment groups was lower than in the sham group. In Western blot, the expression of inflammasomes was higher after TBI in the sham group, but the expression of interleukin-1β, caspase-1, and NLRP3 was decreased significantly following treatment with pioglitazone. The expression of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and Iba1 was decreased in both the K/O and treatment groups. In addition, confocal microscopy revealed a decrease in microglial cell and astrocyte activation following pioglitazone therapy.

CONCLUSIONS

The inflammasome NLRP3 plays a pivotal role in regulating cerebral edema and secondary inflammation. Interestingly, pioglitazone reduced cerebral edema and immune response after TBI by downregulating the effects of NLRP3. These results suggest that the clinical application of pioglitazone may be a neuroprotective strategy in TBI.

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Jae Taek Hong, Sang Won Lee, Byung Chul Son, Jae Hoon Sung, Seung Ho Yang, Il Sub Kim, and Chun Kun Park

Object

The current study evaluates the incidence of anatomical variations of the V3 segment of the vertebral artery (VA) and the posterior arch of the atlas (C-1). Failure to appreciate these types of anatomical variations can cause catastrophic injury to the VA during posterior approaches to the upper cervical spine.

Methods

In the present study, the authors analyzed the records of 1013 Korean patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate the incidence of anomalous variations in the third segment of the VA and to determine the incidence and morphometric characteristics of any detected posterior ponticuli. The authors also hoped to determine any specific imaging features that might indicate a VA anomaly around the craniovertebral junction.

Results

The mean age of the patients was ~ 55.7 years and the prevalence of a posterior ponticulus was 15.6%. The incidence rate of a posterior ponticulus in the male population was 19.3%, whereas in the female population it was 12.8%. The incomplete type of posterior ponticulus was more common than the complete type. The mean age of the patients with an incomplete posterior ponticulus (55.7 years) was significantly younger (p = 0.018) than the mean age of patients with a complete posterior ponticulus (57.6 years). The incidence rate of a persistent first inter-segmental artery was 4.7% and the incidence rate of a fenestrated VA was 0.6%. The area of the C-1 transverse foramen on the abnormal side was significantly smaller than that of the contralateral normal side.

Conclusions

The shape of the C-1 posterior arch and the third segment of the VA are heterogeneous. Therefore, preoperative radiological studies should be performed to identify any anatomical variations. Using preoperative 3D CT angiography, we can precisely identify an anomalous VA and significantly reduce the risk of VA injury.

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Jae Taek Hong, Sang Won Lee, Byung Chul Son, Jae Hoon Sung, Il Sub Kim, and Chun Kun Park

✓ Atlantoaxial fixation in which C1–2 screw–rod fixation is performed is a relatively new method. Because reports about this technique are rather scant, little is known about its associated complications. In this report the authors introduce hypoglossal nerve palsy as a complication of this novel posterior atlantoaxial stabilization method.

A 67-year-old man underwent a C1–2 screw–rod fixation for persistent neck pain resulting from a Type 2 odontoid fracture that involved disruption of the transverse atlantal ligament. Posterior instrumentation in which a C-1 lateral mass screw and C-2 pedicle screw were placed was performed. Postoperatively, the patient suffered dysphagia with deviation of the tongue to the left side. At the 4-month follow-up examination, bone fusion was noted on plain x-ray studies of the cervical spine. His hypoglossal nerve palsy resolved completely 2 months postoperatively.

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of hypoglossal nerve palsy following C1–2 screw–rod fixation. The hypoglossal nerve is one of the structures that can be damaged during C-1 lateral mass screw placement.

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Yang Kwon, Jun Seok Bae, Jae Myung Kim, Do Hee Lee, Soon Young Kim, Jae Sung Ahn, Jeong Hoon Kim, Chang Jin Kim, Byung Duk Kwun, and Jung Kyo Lee

✓ Tumors involving the optic nerve (optic glioma, optic nerve sheath meningioma) are benign but difficult to treat. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) may be a useful treatment. The authors present data obtained in three such cases and record the effects of GKS.