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Jonathan G. Hobbs, Jacob S. Young and Julian E. Bailes

Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are traumatic events that affect up to 3.8 million athletes per year. The initial diagnosis and management is often instituted on the field of play by coaches, athletic trainers, and team physicians. SRCs are usually transient episodes of neurological dysfunction following a traumatic impact, with most symptoms resolving in 7–10 days; however, a small percentage of patients will suffer protracted symptoms for years after the event and may develop chronic neurodegenerative disease. Rarely, SRCs are associated with complications, such as skull fractures, epidural or subdural hematomas, and edema requiring neurosurgical evaluation. Current standards of care are based on a paradigm of rest and gradual return to play, with decisions driven by subjective and objective information gleaned from a detailed history and physical examination. Advanced imaging techniques such as functional MRI, and detailed understanding of the complex pathophysiological process underlying SRCs and how they affect the athletes acutely and long-term, may change the way physicians treat athletes who suffer a concussion. It is hoped that these advances will allow a more accurate assessment of when an athlete is truly safe to return to play, decreasing the risk of secondary impact injuries, and provide avenues for therapeutic strategies targeting the complex biochemical cascade that results from a traumatic injury to the brain.

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Jacob N. Young, Blaine S. Nashold Jr. and Eric R. Cosman

✓ A new insulated radiofrequency electrode for making nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone lesions reduces the incidence of ataxia.

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Ramin A. Morshed, Jacob S. Young, Seunggu J. Han, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECTIVE

Greater extent of resection (EOR) improves overall survival and progression-free survival for patients with low- and high-grade glioma. While resection for newly diagnosed insular gliomas can be performed with minimal morbidity, perioperative morbidity is not clearly defined for patients undergoing a repeat resection for recurrent insular gliomas. In this study the authors report on tumor characteristics, tumor EOR, and functional outcomes in patients undergoing reoperation for recurrent insular glioma.

METHODS

Adult patients with insular gliomas (WHO grades II–IV) who underwent index resection followed by reoperation were identified through the University of California San Francisco Brain Tumor Center. Treatment history and functional outcomes were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical record. Pre- and postoperative tumor volumes were quantified using software with region-of-interest analysis based on FLAIR and T1-weighted postgadolinium sequences from pre- and postoperative MRI.

RESULTS

Forty-four patients (63.6% male, 36.4% female) undergoing 49 reoperations for recurrent insular tumors were identified with a median follow-up of 741 days. Left- and right-sided tumors comprised 52.3% and 47.7% of the cohort, respectively. WHO grade II, III, and IV gliomas comprised 46.9%, 28.6%, and 24.5% of the cohort, respectively. Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of cases involved language and/or motor mapping. Median EOR of the insular component of grade II, III, and IV tumors were 82.1%, 75.0%, and 94.6%, respectively. EOR during reoperation was not impacted by Berger-Sanai insular zone or tumor side. At the time of reoperation, 44.9% of tumors demonstrated malignant transformation to a higher WHO grade. Ninety-day postoperative assessment confirmed that 91.5% of patients had no new postoperative deficit attributable to surgery. Of those with new deficits, 3 (6.4%) had a visual field cut and 1 (2.1%) had hemiparesis (strength grade 1–2/5). The presence of a new postoperative deficit did not vary with EOR.

CONCLUSIONS

Recurrent insular gliomas, regardless of insular zone and pathology, may be reoperated on with an overall acceptable degree of resection and safety despite their anatomical and functional complexities. The use of intraoperative mapping utilizing asleep or awake methods may reduce morbidity to acceptable rates despite prior surgery.

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Stephen T. Magill, Jacob S. Young, Ricky Chae, Manish K. Aghi, Philip V. Theodosopoulos and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Prior studies have investigated preoperative risk factors for meningioma; however, no association has been shown between meningioma tumor size and tumor grade. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and grade in a large single-center study of patients undergoing meningioma resection.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing meningioma resection at the University of California, San Francisco, between 1985 and 2015 was performed. Patients with incomplete information, spinal meningiomas, multiple meningiomas, or WHO grade III meningiomas were excluded. The largest tumor dimension was used as a surrogate for tumor size. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between tumor grade and tumor size. A recursive partitioning analysis was performed to identify groups at higher risk for atypical (WHO grade II) meningioma.

RESULTS

Of the 1113 patients identified, 905 (81%) had a WHO grade I tumor and in 208 (19%) the tumors were WHO grade II. The median largest tumor dimension was 3.6 cm (range 0.2–13 cm). Tumors were distributed as follows: skull base (n = 573, 51%), convexity/falx/parasagittal (n = 431, 39%), and other (n = 109, 10%). On univariate regression, larger tumor size (p < 0.001), convexity/falx/parasagittal location (p < 0.001), and male sex (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of WHO grade II pathology. After controlling for interactions, multivariate regression found male sex (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25–2.43), size 3–6 cm (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.08–2.66), size > 6 cm (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.53–5.94), and convexity/falx/parasagittal location (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.19–2.82) to be significantly associated with WHO grade II. Recursive partitioning analysis identified male patients with tumors > 3 cm as a high-risk group (32%) for WHO grade II meningioma.

CONCLUSIONS

Larger tumor size is associated with a greater likelihood of a meningioma being WHO grade II, independent of tumor location and male sex, which are known risk factors.

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Ramin A. Morshed, Jacob S. Young, Seunggu J. Han, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECTIVE

Many surgical approaches have been described for lesions within the mesial temporal lobe (MTL), but there are limited reports on the transcortical approach for the resection of tumors within this region. Here, the authors describe the technical considerations and functional outcomes in patients undergoing transcortical resection of gliomas of the MTL.

METHODS

Patients with a glioma (WHO grades I–IV) located within the MTL who had undergone the transcortical approach in the period between 1998 and 2016 were identified through the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) tumor registry and were classified according to tumor location: preuncus, uncus, hippocampus/parahippocampus, and various combinations of the former groups. Patient and tumor characteristics and outcomes were determined from operative, radiology, pathology, and other clinical reports that were available through the UCSF electronic medical record.

RESULTS

Fifty patients with low- or high-grade glioma were identified. The mean patient age was 46.8 years, and the mean follow-up was 3 years. Seizures were the presenting symptom in 82% of cases. Schramm types A, C, and D represented 34%, 28%, and 38% of the tumors, and the majority of lesions were located at least in part within the hippocampus/parahippocampus. For preuncus and preuncus/uncus tumors, a transcortical approach through the temporal pole allowed for resection. For most tumors of the uncus and those extending into the hippocampus/parahippocampus, a corticectomy was performed within the middle and/or inferior temporal gyri to approach the lesion. To locate the safest corridor for the corticectomy, language mapping was performed in 96.9% of the left-sided tumor cases, and subcortical motor mapping was performed in 52% of all cases. The mean volumetric extent of resection of low- and high-grade tumors was 89.5% and 96.0%, respectively, and did not differ by tumor location or Schramm type. By 3 months’ follow-up, 12 patients (24%) had residual deficits, most of which were visual field deficits. Three patients with left-sided tumors (9.4% of dominant-cortex lesions) experienced word-finding difficulty at 3 months after resection, but 2 of these patients demonstrated complete resolution of symptoms by 1 year.

CONCLUSIONS

Mesial temporal lobe gliomas, including larger Schramm type C and D tumors, can be safely and aggressively resected via a transcortical equatorial approach when used in conjunction with cortical and subcortical mapping.

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Fara Dayani, Jacob S. Young, Alexander Bonte, Edward F. Chang, Philip Theodosopoulos, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

Butterfly glioblastoma (bGBM) is a rare type of GBM, characterized by a butterfly pattern on MRI studies because of its bihemispheric involvement and invasion of the corpus callosum (CC). There is a profound gap in the knowledge regarding the optimal treatment approach as well as the safety and survival benefits of resection in treating this aggressive brain tumor. In this retrospective study, authors add to our understanding of these tumors by identifying the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with bGBM.

METHODS

An institutional database was reviewed for GBM cases treated in the period from 2004 to 2014. Records were reviewed to identify adult patients with bGBM. Cases of GBM with invasion of the CC without involvement of the contralateral hemisphere and bilateral GBMs without involvement of the CC were excluded from the study. Patient and tumor characteristics were gleaned from the medical records, and volumetric analysis was performed using T1-weighted MRI studies.

RESULTS

From among 1746 cases of GBM, 39 cases of bGBM were identified. Patients had a mean age of 57.8 years at diagnosis. Headache and confusion were the most common presenting symptoms (48.7% and 33.3%, respectively). The median overall survival was 3.2 months from diagnosis with an overall 6-month survival rate of 38.1%. Age, Karnofsky Performance Status at diagnosis, preoperative tumor volume, postoperative tumor volume, and extent of resection were found to significantly impact survival in the univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, preoperative tumor volume and treatment approach of resection versus biopsy were identified as independent prognostic factors regardless of the patient-specific characteristics of age and KPS at diagnosis. Resection and biopsy were performed in 35.9% and 64.1% of patients, respectively. Resection was found to confer a better prognosis than biopsy (HR 0.37, p = 0.009) with a minimum extent of resection of 86% to observe survival benefits (HR 0.054, p = 0.03). The rate of persistent neurological deficits from resection was 7.14%. Patients younger than 70 years had a better prognosis (HR 0.32, p = 0.003). Patients undergoing resection and receiving adjuvant chemoradiation had a better prognosis than patients who lacked one of the three treatment modalities (HR = 0.34, p = 0.015).

CONCLUSIONS

Resection of bGBM is associated with low persistent neurological deficits, with improvement in survival compared to biopsy. A more aggressive treatment approach involving aggressive resection and adjuvant chemoradiation has significant survival benefits and improves outcome.