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Ronald E. Warnick, Jack Raisanen, Theodore Kaczmar Jr., Richard L. Davis and Michael D. Prados

✓ A rare case of intradural chordoma is described. The literature contains seven examples of intradural extraosseous chordoma, all reported in a ventral location. This is the first reported case of a primary intradural chordoma distant from the clivus and involving both the supra- and infratentorial compartments.

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Atif Haque, Jack M. Raisanen, Samuel L. Barnett and Duke S. Samson

Postoperative intracranial infections, although found in only a minority of surgical cases, remain a recognized potential complication following elective craniotomy. In the treatment of intracranial aneurysms, specifically, reports of significant postoperative infections are rare. Significant postoperative infections are usually observed in association with foreign bodies, such as aneurysm clips, endovascular coils, or materials used for aneurysm wrapping. The authors present a case in which a patient underwent craniotomy for surgical clip ligation of a giant ophthalmic artery aneurysm without resection of the aneurysm mass; the patient then presented again approximately 4 months later with a first-time seizure. Following a second craniotomy for resection of the aneurysm mass, the aneurysm contents were noted on pathological examination to contain gram-positive rods, and the aneurysm wall was noted to contain inflammatory cells. Although cultures were not obtained, Propionibacterium acnes was detected using polymerase chain reaction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case represents the second reported case of an intraaneurysmal abscess and the first reported instance of a presumed secondary infection of a giant intracranial aneurysm remnant following surgical clip ligation.

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Derek A. Mathis, Edward J. Stehel Jr., Joseph E. Beshay, Bruce E. Mickey, Andrew L. Folpe and Jack Raisanen

Hypophosphatemia with osteomalacia may be due to a neoplasm that produces fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), which inhibits phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys. Most of these tumors occur in bone or soft tissue and occasionally in the head, although intracranial occurrence is very rare. This report describes a tumor that caused hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia and was located entirely in the right anterior cranial fossa. Radiologically, the tumor resembled a meningioma; histologically, it was a low-grade phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT). After gross-total resection, the patient's symptoms abated and laboratory values normalized. The authors also studied another PMTMCT initially diagnosed as a hemangiopericytoma that involved the left anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid sinus, and reviewed reports of 6 other intracranial tumors that induced osteomalacia, 3 entirely in the anterior cranial fossa, 2 involving the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid sinus, and 1 in the cavernous sinus. In older children or adults who have hypophosphatemia with osteomalacia and no personal or family history of metabolic, renal, or malabsorptive disease, a neoplasm should be suspected and an imaging workup that includes the brain is warranted, with particular attention to the anterior cranial fossa. Additionally, because there are some overlapping histological features between PMTMCTs and hemangiopericytomas, it may be helpful to assess tumoral FGF-23 expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemical analysis in patients with oncogenic osteomalacia from an intracranial tumor diagnosed as, or resembling, hemangiopericytoma.

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Salah G. Aoun, Valery Peinado Reyes, Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh, Matthew Davies, Ankur R. Patel, Vin Shen Ban, Aaron Plitt, Najib E. El Tecle, Jessica R. Moreno, Jack Raisanen and Carlos A. Bagley

OBJECTIVE

Axial low-back pain is a disease of epidemic proportions that exerts a heavy global toll on the active workforce and results in more than half a trillion dollars in annual costs. Stem cell injections are being increasingly advertised as a restorative solution for various degenerative diseases and are becoming more affordable and attainable by the public. There have been multiple reports in the media of these injections being easily available abroad outside of clinical trials, but scientific evidence supporting them remains scarce. The authors present a case of a serious complication after a stem cell injection for back pain and provide a systematic review of the literature of the efficacy of this treatment as well as the associated risks and complications.

METHODS

A systematic review of the literature was performed using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus online electronic databases to identify articles reporting stem cell injections for axial back pain in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The primary focus was on outcomes and complications. A case of glial hyperplasia of the roots of the cauda equina directly related to stem cell injections performed abroad is also reported.

RESULTS

The authors identified 14 publications (including a total of 147 patients) that met the search criteria. Three of the articles presented data for the same patient population with different durations of follow-up and were thus analyzed as a single study, reducing the total number of studies to 12. In these 12 studies, follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 6 years, with 50% having a follow-up period of 1 year or less. Most studies reported favorable outcomes, although 36% used subjective measures. There was a tendency for pain relief to wane after 6 months to 2 years, with patients seeking a surgical solution. Only 1 study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

CONCLUSIONS

There are still insufficient data to support stem cell injections for back pain. Additional RCTs with long-term follow-up are necessary before statements can be made regarding the efficacy and safety.